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HVAC Duct Friction Equations

# HVAC Duct Friction Equations

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As air flows through any conduit there is an associated pressure drop. The Carrier
System Design Manual, Air Disribution Part 2 describes an equation for calculating
the pressure drop. The only variable that is solved for is the pressure drop. This
report works out all the other variables that are involved in the equation. All ductalator’s
and other hand held ductwork calculators are based on this equation.
As air flows through any conduit there is an associated pressure drop. The Carrier
System Design Manual, Air Disribution Part 2 describes an equation for calculating
the pressure drop. The only variable that is solved for is the pressure drop. This
report works out all the other variables that are involved in the equation. All ductalator’s
and other hand held ductwork calculators are based on this equation.

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HVAC Duct Friction Equations Page 1 of 6William A. Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Trident3June 7, 2009
Executive Summary
As air flows through any conduit there is an associated pressure drop. The CarrierSystem Design Manual, Air Disribution Part 2 describes an equation for calculatingthe pressure drop. The only variable that is solved for is the pressure drop. This
report works out all the other variables that are involved in the equation. All ductalator’sand other hand held ductwork calculators are based on this equation.The basic Equation:Found in The Carrier System Design Manual, Air Disribution Part 2, 10
th
Printing1974, page 2-31 is the following equation:
Solving for L
(length) :If we solve strictly for galvanized duct then we can eliminate the first variable f 0.9 x 0.03 = 0.027.The equation now looks like this:Next:And :
1.821.22
LVP = 0.03 f 1000dwhere:P = friction loss (inches water gage)f = interior surface roughness (0.9 for galvanized duct)L = length of duct (feet)d = duct diameter (inches), equivalen
t diameter for rectangular ductwork V = air velocity (feet per minute)
1.821.22
LVP = 0.0271000d
1.82
1000= 288403
1.821.22
0.027 VLP = (equation-A)288403 d

HVAC Duct Friction Equations Page 2 of 6William A. Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Trident3June 7, 2009
Solving for L
(length) : (Continued)
Solving for d (diameter):
The same equation-A is used as solving for L :
1.221.821.22

1.221.221.221.82
Multiply both sides by : 288403 d0.027 VLP288403 d= 288403 d288403 dP288403 d= 0.027 VL
1.821.221.821.821.821.221.82
Divide both sides by 0.027 VP288403 d0.027 VL=0.027 V0.027 VP288403 dL =0.027 V
1.221.82
P288403 dL = (equation-1)0.03fV
or
1.821.221.221.821.221.221.221.221.82
0.027 VLP = (equation-A)288403 dMultiply both sides by 288403d0.027 VL288403 dP288403d=288403 dP288403d= 0.027 VLDivide both sides by 288403PP
1.221.82111.821.821.221.22NN
288403d0.027 VL=P288403P2884030.027 VL0.027 VLd= and A= B then A = Bd = (equation-2)P288403P288403

HVAC Duct Friction Equations Page 3 of 6William A. Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Trident3June 7, 2009Solving for V (velocity):(equation-3)It must be remembered that this equation for Velocity represents a velocitydependant on the pressure drop and length of duct and is not an instantaneousvelocity calculation where CFM is simply divided by the duct cross section.Example-1:A galvanized duct with an equvilant length of 79 feet is required by design have apressure drop of 0.125 inches water gage static friction, the duct velocity is 980 feet perminute.Find the
exact required
equivalent diameter of the duct.
1.821.221.221.82

1.221.221.221.82
0.027 VLP = (equation-A)288403 dMultiply both sides by 288403d0.027 VL288403 dP288403d=288403 dDivide both sides by 0.027L:P288403d0.027 VL=0.027L
1.2211.221.221.8211.82NN
0.027LP288403dP288403dV= and A= B then A = BV =0.027L0.027L
11.821.22see equation-211.821.22
0.027 VLequation-2 will be used to solve this problem d =P2884030.027 98079d = = 9.927" (inches diameter) to check the cf 0.125288403

222
m =9.927feet2= square feet of area == 0.537 feet980 = 526.3 CFM144144min

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