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Math Analysis Semester 2 Study Guide PDF Version

Math Analysis Semester 2 Study Guide PDF Version

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© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan
Math Analysis Semester 2 Study Guide
Roots/ Polynomials:
If f(x) is a polynomial of degree n where n>0, then f has at least one zero in the complex # system.Know Rational Root Theorem: (factors of last co-efficient/factors of 1
st
co-efficient)Know Polynomial Division:Ex.
 
=
3
+11
2
+39
+29
 Use Rational Root Theorem
to get:
±29,±1
as factors-1 1 11 39 29-1 -10 -291 10 29 0
(
2
+10
+29)(
+1)
 Then use the quadratic formula
Rational Functions and Asymptotes:
Vertical Asymptotes
: where denominator = 0 (only
after
factoring and canceling)
Holes (deleted pts)
: are what cancels out
Horizontal Asymptotes
: the # you approach as |x|
(only look @ the dominant term then cancel)Steps: 1.factor numerator + denominator2. Write restrictions (what makes denominator = 0)3. Cancel (the holes)4. Denominator = 0 after canceling are the vertical asymptotes.Ex.
 
=
2
+2
2
2
−
 
=
+2
2
1
 
0,
12
 
 
=
+22
1
 
ℎ
:
=0

 
 
:
=
12
 

 
 
:
=12
 
***BE ABLE TO GRAPH BY HAND AND STATE THE DOMAIN***
 
© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara Balakrishnan
Slant Asymptotes:
only occur when power in numerator is
ONE
larger than power in denominatorTo Find: use Long Division
 
=
3
+
2
2
2
2
+ 3
 Y=
+1 +
5
 −
4
2
+3
 
2
+3

3
+
2
2
1
 
3
3
 
2
5
1
 
2
3
 
5
4
 Slant:
Sequences
A sequence is a function whose domain is the set of positive integersEx. A
n
=3n-2 sequence is 1,4,7,10
 Factorials review: n! = 1·2·3...n0!=1
5!3!=5×4=20
 Summation notation:
=
1
+a
2
=1
+
 Example:
2
1=5+7+9+11+13=45
7
=3
 Arithmetic SequencesA
1
,A
2
,A
3
,A
n
 A
2
 
 – 
A
1
=d A
3
 
 – 
A
2
=d you get the idead is the common difference1, 4, 7, 10 d=3 a
n
=a
1
+(n-1)dSum of finite arithmetic sequence:
=
2
(
1
+
)=
(
1
+
2
)
 Geometric Sequences:A
2
/ A
1
= A
3
/ A
2
=rA
n
=a
1
r
n-1
 Sum of a Finite Geometric Sequence
=
1
1
=
1

1
 
 
© 2009 Math Analysis Semester 2: Maya Balakrishnan and Tara BalakrishnanSum of an infinite geometric sequence
=
1
1
−
 
Where |r|<1
Study Guide of Examples for Sequences and Functions:
Linear:
lim 3x+1 = 3(2)+1 = 7x
2
7
<3
+1<7+
 
6
<3
<6+
 
2
3<
<2+
3
 
=
3
 
Quadratics:
Lim
2
+5 = (2)
2
+5 = 9x
2|( x
2
+5)-(9)|<E| x
2
 
 – 
4|<E|x+2| |x-2|<Elet
≤ 1
 |x-2| <1-1<x-2<13<x+2<5|x+2|<5|x+2| |x-2|<E|x-2|(5)<E|x-2|<E/5
<E/5
Rationals:
 Lim (x+4)/(x-2) = (3+4)/(3-2) = 7x
3|( x+4)/(x-2)
 – 
7|<E|[x+4-7(x-2)]/(x-2)|<E|(x+4-7x+14)/(x-2)|<E|(18-6x)/(x-2)|<E|-6| |x-3| |1/(x-2)| <E|x-3| |1/(x-2)|<E/6let
≤ ½
 
Proof:Let
≤1 then |x
-2|<1 and |x+2|<5. If we also let |x-2|<E/5 thenthe product:|x+2| |x-2|<E|x
2
 
 – 
4|<E|( x
2
+5)-(9)|<Eso choose
=1 or E/5 whichever is smaller than whenever x E<2-
, 2+
> and x
2 then x
2
+5 E <9-E, 9+E> and the limit is 9Proof:Choose
= E/3 since all steps are reversiblewhenever x E <2-
, 2+
> and x
2 then 3x+1E <7-E, 7+E> and the limit is 7Proof:Let
≤ ½ then |x
-3|<1/2 and |1/(x-2)|<2. If we also let |x-3|<E/12 then the product:|x-3| |1/(x-2)|<E/6|-6| |x-3| |1/(x-2)| <E|(18-6x)/(x-2)|<E|(x+4-7x+14)/(x-2)|<E|[x+4-7(x-2)]/(x-2)|<E|( x+4)/(x-2)
 – 
7|<Eso choose
=1/2 or E/12 whichever is smaller then wheneverx E <3-
, 3+
> and x
3 then (x+4)/(x-2) E <7-E, 7+E> andthe limit is 7

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