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Haarp Cohen

Haarp Cohen

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Published by Flavio Bernardotti
Haarp Cohen
Haarp Cohen

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Orientation of the HAARP ELF ionospheric dipole and the auroralelectrojet
M. B. Cohen,
1
M. Go1
 J 
kowski,
1
and U. S. Inan
1
Received 2 November 2007; revised 3 December 2007; accepted 10 December 2007; published 23 January 2008.
[
1
] The HF heating facility of the High Frequency ActiveAuroral Research Program (HAARP), located near Gakona,Alaska, generates ELF (300 Hz - 3 kHz) waves viamodulated HF (2.7–10 MHz) heating of the auroralelectrojet. Using two ELF/VLF receivers at 
$
700 kmfrom HAARP, the orientation of the equivalent ELFradiating ionospheric dipole is inferred from the relativestrength and Earth-ionosphere waveguide modal content of signals received. In several cases analyzed the effectiveHAARP electric dipole orientation is generally alongmagnetic east-west direction. A new metric is introducedto evaluate the validity of the determination of sourcecharacteristics with medium and long-range ELF/VLFmeasurements. Results are put into context of the auroralelectrojet, indicating the possibility of studying small-scaleelectrojet structure not observable with magnetometers.
Citation:
Cohen, M. B., M. Go1
 J 
kowski, and U. S. Inan (2008),Orientation of the HAARP ELF ionospheric dipole and theauroral electrojet,
Geophys. Res. Lett.
,
35
, L02806, doi:10.1029/ 2007GL032424.
1. Introduction
[
2
] Modulation of natural ionospheric currents to gener-ate ELF (300 Hz–3 kHz) radiation has been investigatedtheoretically and experimentally since the first observations by
Getmantsev et al.
[1974]. Since efficient ELF radiatingantennae require prohibitively large physical sizes, harness-ing the natural ionospheric currents (
$
75–100 km) at highlatitudes by modulated heating with HF (2.7–10 MHz)waves is an attractive alternative. Nonlinear HF to ELFconversion occurs via absorption-induced changes in theelectron temperature and thus the ionospheric conductivi-ties. The effectiveness of such an ELF radiator is a functionof the ambient current distribution and electron density, aswell as electron heating and cooling rates, which are highlyvariable [
 Moore
, 2007].[
3
] The European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) Associa-tion HF heating facility near Tromsø, Norway generatesELF/VLF signals with ground-based amplitudes of up to1 pT. The Tromsø data, and corresponding theoreticalinterpretations, are reported in a long series of papers[e.g.,
Stubbe and Kopka
, 1983]. The 1 MW radiated,200–300 MW ERP TromHF heater was typically100% square wave amplitude modulated at HF frequenciesfrom 2.75 to 8 MHz.[
4
] HF ionospheric heating facilities at Arecibo, PuertoRico, and the High Power Auroral Stimulation (HIPAS),near Fairbanks, Alaska, have done similar experiments. At Arecibo, the equatorial dynamo current was modulated with800 kW to produce 500 Hz - 5 kHz waves [
 Ferraro et al.
,1982]. At HIPAS, ELF/VLF waves were produced mossuccessfully when the electrojet was overhead, when therewas low D region absorption, and when visible aurora werenot present [
Villasen˜or et al.
, 1996].[
5
] The HAARP heating facility in Gakona, Alaska(62.39
°
 N, 145.15
°
W) injects ELF/VLF waves in theEarth-ionosphere wave-guide as far as 4400 km [
 Moore et al.
, 2007] and also into space [
 Inan et al.
, 2004]. HAARPhas recently been upgraded to a total radiated power of 3.6 MW, and an ERP capability of 
$
400 MWat 3.25 MHz.In this paper, we present a new method to determine theeffective ELF dipole characteristics using observations at medium distances (
$
700 km).
2. Description of Data
[
6
] ELF/VLF data are taken with the AWESOMEreceiver. These broadband, high-sensitivity ELF/VLFreceivers consist of two orthogonal air-core loop antennae,measuring the two horizontal components of the magneticfield as low as a few femtotesla. Data is synchronized toGPS. The three relevant receivers are shown in Figure 1a.[
7
] Near field ELF measurements (within
$
50 km of HAARP) show high variability, making decoupling of effects of various dependencies difficult. Furthermore, thecavity resonator formed by the Earth and ionosphere domi-nates the frequency response, producing strong resonances at multiples of 
$
2 kHz [
Stubbe and Kopka
, 1983]. However,the Earth-ionosphere waveguide allow only certain modes to propagate to longer distances, facilitating easier decoupling.[
8
] On the other hand, subionospheric propagation is alsointrinsically variable. Numerical models of the propagationof ELF/VLF signals in the Earth-ionosphere waveguiderequire as input the electron density profiles all along the propagation path, which are highly variable and typicallynot known. There may therefore be an optimal distance,long enough for properties to be dominated by waveguidemodes, but short enough to minimize effects of ionosphericvariations over the propagation path. Observed signals maythen be more directly linked to the source current geometry.[
9
] At frequencies <3 kHz, the three basic propagatingEarth-ionosphere wave-guide modes are the quasi-transverseelectromagnetic mode (qTEM), with magnetic field hori-zontal and transverse to propagation path, existing at allfrequencies but with higher attenuation with increasingfrequency [
 Inan and Inan
, 2000, p. 255]. The quasi-transverse magnetic mode (qTM) has magnetic fieldsaligned in the same way but propagates only above thefirst order ionospheric cutoff (
$
1.8 kHz). The quasi-
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 35, L02806, doi:10.1029/2007GL032424, 2008
1
STAR Lab, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.0094-8276/08/2007GL032424$05.00
L02806
1 of 5
 
transverse electric (qTE) mode is subject to the same cutoff, but has a transverse electric field and a radial magnetic field.Though the TE and TM modes exist in higher orders, at <3 kHz only the lowest mode of each propagates.[
10
] Polarization is defined as
B
 B
q
, where
B
is theradial magnetic field phasor (i.e., in the direction fromHAARP to receiver), and
B
q
is the horizontal azimuthalmagnetic field phasor. Polarization is also discussed in thiscontext by
Barr et al.
[1986] and
Moore et al.
[2007].Polarization provides a measure of relative contributions of the qTE (which is dominated by
B
) and qTM modes(dominated by
B
q
). Rapid changes in the electrojet strengthwould likely scale
B
and
B
q
roughly equally [
 Barr et al.
,1986]. Polarization is therefore intrinsically insulated fromthese rapid changes.
3. Observations
[
11
] The strength of HAARP-generated ELF signalsshow high variability minute-to-minute and day-to-day(up to 80 dB) as a result of local ionospheric electrondensity and electrojet variations. Nevertheless, HAARP-generated ELF is detected, even on the weakest days, at areceiver located in Chistochina, Alaska (62.61
°
 N,144.62
°
W, 37 km from HAARP) with signal intensitiestypically between 10 fT and 10 pT. Amplitudes at Chisto-china of >
$
100 fT are often indicative of reception also at Juneau (58.59
°
 N, 134.90
°
W, 704 km magnetic ESE of HAARP), and Kodiak (57.87
°
 N, 152.88
°
W, 661 km mag-netic SSW of HAARP). The heading from HAARP toJuneau and Kodiak, respectively, differ by nearly 90
°
, i.e.,the sites sense nearly orthogonal directions in the HAARPradiation pattern.[
12
] We consider periods of consistent strong reception at Juneau and Kodiak. Figures 1b–1d show samples of HAARP ELF signals (transmitted format was a 10-secondlong sequence of three tones and a frequency-time ramp)observed at the three sites for two hours, during ionosphericnighttime on 01 March 2007. All format elements are seenat Chistochina, while Kodiak data does not exhibit anysignals below
$
2 kHz, and the Juneau spectrogram showsvariable fading with frequency.[
13
] The lack of signal <
$
2 kHz at Kodiak is consistent with absence of qTEM mode, whereas the Juneau data withqTEM and some combination of other modes. Figure 2shows signal amplitude and polarization (
 B
 B
q
) for threedifferent frequencies at Juneau and Kodiak for a 30 minute period. Each observed tone is 13 seconds long, and isintegrated over the entire pulse for the polarization mea-surement. At Kodiak, the polarization indicates a stronger radial component for all three frequencies, consistent withqTE1 mode. At Juneau, the polarization for the 2375 Hz and2875 Hz components suggest an additional azimuthal mag-netic component. Furthermore, at Kodiak, all three frequen-cies’ intensities are very closely correlated, consistent with asingle dominant mode, while the highly variable intensitiesat Juneau evidence modal interference.[
14
] Signals are stronger at Kodiak by
$
5–10 dB, which(since both sites are at 
$
700 km) could not be attributed toionospheric attenuation unless the HAARP-Juneau pathexhibited 7–14 dB/Mm higher attenuation than theHAARP-Kodiak path, unreasonable in view of typicalnighttime attenuation rates of <4 dB/Mm (J. Galejs as cited by
Davies
[1970]). However, this difference is a naturalresult of a generally magnetic east-west orientation of theeffective electric dipole radiator as shown below.[
15
] These observations were repeated for two moredaytime cases, covering the same 30-minutes on consecu-tive days with good ELF reception at Juneau and Kodiak,28 and 29 April 2007 (not shown). These data show similar 
Figure 1.
(b)–(d) Spectrograms from sites in Figure 1a. During this period, the transmitted pattern consisted of tones at 2375 Hz (3 sec), 2175 Hz (1 sec), and 2875 Hz (1 sec), followed by a 500 Hz/s ramp between 500 Hz and 3 kHz.
L02806
COHEN ET AL.: ORIENTATION OF THE HAARP ELF DIPOLE AND THE ELECTROJET
L02806
2 of 5
 
results to 01 March 2007, i.e., qTE1 content at Kodiak,qTE1+qTM1 content at Juneau with weaker signals.
4. Discussion
[
16
] We utilize a numerical method to evaluate the degreeto which modal content is preserved at these distances, andtherefore, the viability of the orientation determination, for the four different ionospheres in Figures 3b and 3c. TheD-region electron density is represented with a referenceheight and steepness parameter [
Wait and Spies
, 1965],which work well in linking VLF observations with iono-spheric profiles [e.g.,
Thomson
, 1993]. The four modelsrepresents low and flat (Profile A,
h
0
= 80 km
=0.50 km
À
1
), low and sharp (Profile B,
h
0
= 80 km
=0.75km
À
1
),highandflat(ProfileC,
h
0
=80km
=0.5km
À
1
),and high and sharp (Profile D,
h
0
= 80 km
= 0.5 km
À
1
).The E-region is represented as an exponential decay,
Figure 2.
(a) Amplitude at Juneau, (b) amplitude at Kodiak, (c) polarization at Juneau, and (d) polarization at Kodiak.
Figure 3.
(a) Schematic showing how the field lines for an electric dipole affect the modal content at Juneau and Kodiak.(b)–(c) Electron density and collision frequency profiles for four different ionospheric D and E regions as defined in thetext. The four reflection coefficients from the ionosphere for profile as a function of angle of incidence with respect tovertical (d),
X
for 2375 Hz (e).
L02806
COHEN ET AL.: ORIENTATION OF THE HAARP ELF DIPOLE AND THE ELECTROJET
L02806
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