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High Frequency Radar Astronomy With Haarp

High Frequency Radar Astronomy With Haarp

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Published by Flavio Bernardotti
High Frequency Radar Astronomy With Haarp
High Frequency Radar Astronomy With Haarp

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Published by: Flavio Bernardotti on Aug 22, 2013
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HighFrequency
Radar
AstronomyWithHAARP
PaulRodriguez
NavalResearchLaboratoryInformationTechnologyDivision
Washington,DC20375,USA
EdwardKennedy
NavalResearchLaboratoryInformationTechnologyDivision
Washington,
DC
20375,USA
PaulKossey
AirFcrceResearchLaboratorySpaceVehiclesDirectorate
HanscomAFB,MA01731,USA
Abstract-At
highfrequency,radiowaves
will
interactwithspaceplasmasandsurfaces
of
localastronomicalobjects,producinganechothatcanprovidenewdiagnosticdata.Theavailabilityofhighpowerradarsoperating
at
highfrequenciesopensawindowfortheremoteinvestigation
of
our
surroundingspaceenvironment.Wediscussandillustratethistechniquewith
somespecificexamples.
I.
INTRODUCTION
Overaperiod
of
severalyears,theHighfrequencyActive
AuroralResearchProgram(HAARP)transmittingarraynearGakona,Alaska,hasincreased
in
totalpower
from
300
kW
to
960kW(seeFig.I).
In
thefinalconfigurationthetotalpowerofHAARPwillbe3.6MW,making
it
themostadvancedand
powerfulhighfrequency(HF)radarfacilityusedforresearch
purposes.Thebasicscienceobjective
of
HAARPis
to
studynonlineareffectsassociatedwithionosphericmodificationbyhighpowerradiowaves.Thesemodificationexperimentsarecarriedout
at
frequenciesintherange2.8to
IO
MHz.
The
HAARPphasedarrayisdesignedtoprovideagilityinpower,
modulation,frequencyselection,andbeamforming.
Inrecentexperiments[1],[2],[3],wehavebeguntoutilize
theHAARParrayforexperimentsin
HF
radarastronomy,
Le.,
to
studyregionsandobjectsbeyondtheEarth'sionosphere.Theobjective
of
theseinvestigationsis
to
advanceanddiscovernewunderstanding
of
thephysical
characteristicsandinteractionsinregions
of
oursolarsystemthatareaccessiblethroughhighpowerradiowavetransmissions.Theseregionsincludethesolarcoronaandcoronalmassejections(CMEs),planetaryhardsulfaces(e.g.,theMoonandasteroids),andastronomicalplasmas(solarwind,magnetosphere,dustyplasmas).Whileourprincipal
researchtoolwillbethehighpowerphasedarrayprovidedby
HAARP,
we
plan
to
haveaccesstoseveralotherfacilitiesprovidingstate-of-the-artcapabilities.Webelievethatthisnewwindowforradarinvestigationscanprovidenewunderstanding
of
solarsystemphenomena.
Fig.
1.
TheHAARParray.
II.
DISCUSSION
In
thisdiscussionwereviewseveralexperimentsthatillustrateourobjectivesandapproach
to
HF
radarastronomyinvestigations.Some
of
theseexperimentshavebeen
done
in
collaborationwiththeNASAIWINDsatelliteandits
HF
radio
wavereceiver(theWAVESexperiment).Theuniqueorbit
of
WINDhasprovidedawiderange
of
radialdistancesfromEarth,includinglunarflybys,overwhichweareabletostudy
theinteractions
of
radiowavestransmitted
from
HAARP.
TheHAARP-WINDbistaticconfigurationhasallowednew
techniquesforconducting
HF
radarexperimentsbeyondtheEarth'sionosphere.Otherexperiments
are
to
beconductedwithground-basedreceivingarrays,such
as
the
Wink.
HF
array,operatedbytheUniversity
of
Texas.
We
arealsoplanningfutureexperimentsutilizingtheLowFrequency
Array(LOFAR)thatwillprovidealargecollectingareaarray
forradioastronomicalresearch.
0-7803-7920-9/031$17.00
~003
IEEE
154
2003IEEERadarConference
 
Report Documentation Page
Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 
Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering andmaintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information,including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, ArlingtonVA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if itdoes not display a currently valid OMB control number.
 
1. REPORT DATE
 
2003
 
2. REPORT TYPE
 
3. DATES COVERED
 
00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003
4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE
 
High Frequency Radar Astronomy With HAARP
 
5a. CONTRACT NUMBER
 
5b. GRANT NUMBER
 
5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER
 
6. AUTHOR(S)
 
5d. PROJECT NUMBER
 
5e. TASK NUMBER
 
5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER
 
7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)
 
Naval Research Laboratory,Information TechnologyDivision,Washington,DC,20375
 
8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATIONREPORT NUMBER
 
9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES)
 
10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S)
 
11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORTNUMBER(S)
 
12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT
 
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited
 
13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES
 
2003 IEEE Radar Conference, held in Huntsville, AL, on May 5-8, 2003.
 
14. ABSTRACT
 
15. SUBJECT TERMS
 
16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF:
 
17. LIMITATION OFABSTRACT
 
Same asReport (SAR)
 
18. NUMBEROF PAGES
 
6
 
19a. NAME OFRESPONSIBLE PERSON
 
a. REPORT
 
unclassified
 
b. ABSTRACT
 
unclassified
 
c. THIS PAGE
 
unclassified
 
Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98)
 Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18
 
HAARP Radiated Power
Density
vs
Radial
Distance
h
Solar
Radii
0.
1
10
100
1000
Radial Distance
@J
10P
10.’’
Fig.
2. The
HAARF
radiated
power
density
versus
range
in
solar
radii.
The current and planncd effective radiated power (ERP)levels of
HAARP
can be used to determine the radiatedpower densities with increasing distance from the Earth. InFig.
2 
we show the power density (watts m-’) expected interms
of
distance from the Earth in solar radii
(RJ.
As
ameasure
of
comparison, the receiver threshold for the
WAVES
experiment
on
board the
WIND
satellite is shown.Typically, the cosmic galactic background
is
the limitingbackground noise level at the frequencies
of
HAARP,
andthis level
is
also shown. The radial locations of the Moon and
Sun
show that
if
a satellite receiver like WAVES were
-in
located as far away as the Sun,
it
would be possible to detect
HAARP
signals, especially when the final power level
of
HAARP
becomes available.
At
the current power level oforbit perturbation.
In
a 2-hr interval, when the spacecraft wasabout
40,000
km from the lunar surface, the
HAARP
arrayilluminated the
Moon
with
a
series of 100-ms pulses at
-960
kilowatts at a frequency
of 8.075
MHz.
HAARP-WAVES
Lunar
Radar Experiment
13
September
2001
UT
1700
to
1900
0
-10
2
d
-30
>
HAARP,
it
is
possible to detect radio waves at levels belowtechniques.
Thus,
for
example, future satellite experimentsthe galactic background by using various integrationwith
HF
radio wave receivers will be able to perform studies
of
radio wave scattering in the interplanetary mediumbetween the Earth and the
Sun.
Similar studies have already
4
begun in the nearby solar wind where
WIND
is
active.
.so
111
LUNARECHO
-60
-10
o
IO
10
30
40
so
A
specific example of a recent experiment
is
given
in
Fig..and
WIND
spacecraft
on
September
13,
2001,
when the:spacecraft was approaching the
Moon
to
use
lunar gravity for
~3,
hich shows the ecliptic plane trajectories of the Moon
XE%
Rd
Fig.
3.
HAARF
pulses
at
8.075
ME
eceived
at
WIND.
155
2003
IEEE
Radar Conference

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