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The Role of Personal Values in Marketing and Consumer Behavior

The Role of Personal Values in Marketing and Consumer Behavior

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Published by Nasir Ali
The Role of Personal Values in Marketing and Consumer Behavior
The Role of Personal Values in Marketing and Consumer Behavior

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Published by: Nasir Ali on Aug 22, 2013
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The Role of Personal Values in Marketing and Consumer BehaviorAuthor(s): Donald E. Vinson, Jerome E. Scott, Lawrence M. LamontSource:
Journal of Marketing,
Vol. 41, No. 2, (Apr., 1977), pp. 44-50Published by: American Marketing AssociationStable URL:
Accessed: 21/07/2008 05:29
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available athttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unlessyou have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and youmay use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained athttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=ama.Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printedpage of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1995 to build trusted digital archives for scholarship. We work with thescholarly community to preserve their work and the materials they rely upon, and to build a common research platform thatpromotes the discovery and use of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.
 
44/JournalofMarketing,April1977
DonaldE.Vinson,JeromeE. ScottandLawrenceM.Lamont
The
Role
of
Personal
Values
in
Marketing
nd
Consumer
Behavior
CanPersonalValuesbeused toassistmarketersindeterminingconsumerchoicebehavior?
MARKETERShavelongacknowledged theimportanceofattitudes andattitudechangeinthestudyofmarketingandconsumerbehavior,buttheroleofvalueshasreceivedrelativelylittleattention.Eventhoughthemarketingliteraturereflects anemerginginterestinthetopic,1 per-sonalvalueshave notbeenwidelyusedtoinves-tigatetheunderlyingdimensions ofconsumerbe-havior. Thisissurprisingconsideringtheimpor-tancetypicallyassignedto valuesbyawidevari-etyofsocialobserversandbusinessmenalike.2Whileitseems thatpersonalvalueshaveim-portantimplicationsformarketing practitionersandresearchers,valuesandthewaysinwhichtheyinfluencethebehaviorofconsumerswholook atandchoosebrands,productclasses,andproductattributes isnotclear. Inordertoinvesti-gatetheserelationships,itisnecessarytoopera-tionallydefine whatvaluesare,andtoindicateempiricalmethodsavailableforexaminingtheconnectionsbetweenpersonalvaluesandcon-sumerbehavior.Thepurposeofthisarticle istoaddresstheseissues.Specifically,attention willbefocused on:1.Adiscussionofthemeaningofvaluesandtheirrelationshiptobehavior.
AbouttheAuthors
DONALDE.VINSONsAssociateProfessorofMarket-ing,UniversityofSouthernCalifornia,LosAngeles.JEROMEE.SCOTTsAssociateProfessor ofBusinessAdministration,UniversityofDelaware,Newark.LAWRENCEM.LAMONTsAssociateProfessor ofMarketing,WashingtonandLeeUniversity,Lexington,Virginia.2.Presentationofanoperationalvaluepara-digmsuitable forstudyingconsumerbehavior.3.Results ofanempiricalinvestigationoftheimpactofvalueorientationsontheimpor-tance ofproductattributes,theappealofvar-iousconsumerproducts,andanumberofsocialissues.4.Theimplicationsofvalueanalysisforthepracticeofmarketing.
PersonalValues
Conceptualizationoftheterm"value"reflectstheinterestofseveraldisciplines:*Anthropology,withitsinterestinlifestylesandculturalpatterns.(Forexample,ThomasandZaranieckidefinevaluesas".. .objec-tive,socialelementswhichimposethem-selvesupontheindividualas agivenand
provokehisreaction.")3
*Sociology,focusingonideologiesandcus-toms.(Forexample,Bronowskisuggeststhat"avalueis aconceptwhichgroupstogethersomemodesofbehavior inoursociety.")4*Psychology,whichexaminesvaluesfromthestandpointofattitudesandpersonalmotives.(Forexample,Rokeachviews"...avalueasacentrallyheld,enduringbeliefwhichguidesactionsandjudgmentsacrossspecificsituationsandbeyondimmediategoalstomoreultimateend-statesof
existence.")5
Inthisarticle,andinthestudyreportedherein,wefollowmostlythepsychologicaldefini-tion,andinparticularRokeach'sview.
 
TheRoleofPersonalValues.../45
Values & Behavior
Theroleofpersonalvaluesasastandardorcriterionforinfluencingevaluationsorchoicesregardingpersons,objects,andideassuggesttherelationshipofvaluestobehavior.Rokeachreportsthat"variouscombinationsof valuessignificantlydifferentiatemenfromwomen,hippiesfromnon-hippies,hawks fromdoves,policemenfromunemployedNegroes,goodstudents frompoorstudents,retailmerchantsfromsalesclerks,JewsfromCatholics,DemocratsfromRepublicans,andsoforth."6Wil-liams hasdemonstrated thatvaluesrelatingto"cleanliness"have ledtodecisionsconcerningthechoiceofoccupations,7whileEnglandusedper-sonalvaluestoinvestigatebehavioraldifferencesamong corporatemanagers.8Values,then,areresponsiblefortheselectionandmaintenance oftheendsorgoalstowardwhichhumanbeingsstriveand,atthesametime,regulatethemethodsandmanner inwhichthisstrivingtakesplace.
Values&ConsumerBehavior
Other thanafewisolatedstudiesdiscussingchangesinnationalvalues,researchinmarketinghasbeen inthecontextofexpectancy-valueanalysisbasedonthemodelsofRosenbergandFishbein.9Researchinterestshavecenteredonpredictingbrandchoice andassessingtherelativeimportanceofvariousproductattributesindeterminingbrandpreference.Itisimportanttonotethat,withfewexcep-tions,10"value"asused inthecontextofexpec-tancy-valueresearchhasbeentakento meanprod-uctattributes andthushas ameaningdifferentfromthatdevelopedinthisarticle.Theexpectancy-valueapproachhasbeenuseful inpredictingbrandchoice butdoesnotexplainwhyconsumersdiffer-entiallyevaluateproductattributes andthuspreferonebrandtoanother.Inordertogaininsightintothisquestionandtounderstandhowchangingnationalvaluesinflu-enceconsumptionpatterns,itwouldbeuseful,bothforstudentsofconsumerbehaviorandforthosemarketingexecutivesresponsibleforthefor-mulationofmarketingstrategy,tohave aframe-workintegrating:*Deep-rootedpersonalvalues*Generalizedconsumptionvalues*Beliefsrelatingtoproductattributes
AModel ofConsumers'
ValueSystems
Areviewofexistingvalueliterature,recentempiri-calresearch,andtheculturalconditioningview-pointonvalueacquisitionleadsustoproposethatvaluesmaybeinvestigatedatthreemutuallyde-pendentandatleastpartiallyconsistentlevelsofabstraction.Theselevels,arrangedinahierarchicalnetwork,arereferredtoasglobalorgeneralizedpersonalvalues,domain-specificvalues,andevalu-ationsofproductattributes.Exhibit 1showseachlevelofvaluesandsuggesttheinfluenceofthesocio-cultural,economic,andfamilialenvironmentontheformationanddevelopmentoftheindivid-ual'svaluesystem.
GlobalValues
Beliefsexistasthemostelementaryunitwithinthissytem.Verycentrallyheldandenduringbeliefsguideactionsandjudgmentsacrossspecificsitua-tionsandarereferredto asglobalvalues.Theseglobalvaluesaremoreabstractandgeneralizablethanlesscentrallyheldbeliefs. Inourconception,thesevaluesformthecentralcoreof anindividual'svaluesystem.Theyconsistofcloselyheldpersonalvalueswhichare ofhighsalience inimportanteval-uationsandchoices.
Domain-SpecificValues
Thesecondlevelofvalues,domain-specificvalues,reflectsthebeliefthatpeopleacquirevaluesthroughexperiencesinspecificsituationsordo-mainsofactivityandthatbehaviorcannotbeun-derstoodorefficiently predictedexceptinthecon-textof aspecificenvironment.Thus,wecontendthatindividualsarrive atvaluesspecifictoeco-nomictransactionsthrougheconomicexchangeandconsumption,atsocialvaluesthroughfamilialandpeergroupinteraction,atreligiousvaluesthroughreligiousinstructionandsoon.Thisintermediatevalueconstructbridgesthegapbetweenthetraditionalconceptionofcloselyheld,butverygeneral,globalvaluesandthelesscloselyhelddescriptiveandevaluativebeliefsaboutproductattributes.Previousresearchhasdemon-stratedthisvalueconstructtobecognitivelysepa-ratebutfunctionallyrelatedto anindividual'ssys-temofglobalvaluesanddescriptiveandevaluativebeliefs.11Alistofdomain-specificvaluesdevelopedforconsumption-relatedactivitiesisshowninExhibit2.

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