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7279661 Digital FM Receiver

7279661 Digital FM Receiver

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Published by Rizu
Not a good one that i would suggest, but can give the idea how to tackle samples when you are actually implementing one
Not a good one that i would suggest, but can give the idea how to tackle samples when you are actually implementing one

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Published by: Rizu on Jun 09, 2009
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11/06/2012

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All Digital FM Receiver (Version 1.0)
Tom Wada, Prof of the University of the Ryukyus, Information Engineering Dept.
[0] Introduction
This year's design target is the All Digital FM Receiver circuit. The FM (FrequencyModulation) is one of very famous wireless communication method and you can findmany text book relating to the FM. Carrier frequency is modulated according to thestrength of analog signal such as Voice. In this design project, we are going to design theall digital FM receiver circuit assuming the Frequency Modulated signal is converted toseries of numerical values (digital signal) via Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC)circuit.Since this contest is mainly for University students, we try to realize the target design assimple as possible. The core of the target design will be digital phase locked loop circuit,which generates sinusoidal wave synchronizing to the input FM wave. The requirementsof the design is to write HDL (VHDL or Verilog HDL) and to synthesize digital circuitsusing Synopsys design analyzer or any other EDA tools. Making FPGA is also optional but our judges love to see your FPGA designs.
Figure1 System Diagram
 
Figure 1 shows the Frequency modulation and demodulation system. Signal generator (SigGen) generates the transmitting signal. In the figure 1, although only 1 or -1 areassumed for SigGen output, other value such as 0.5 is also acceptable. VCO representsVoltage Controlled Oscillator, which generates sinusoidal wave frequency-modulated bythe SigGen output. ADC is Analog to Digital Converter, which converts the analog FMsignal to descrete digitaized signals. When the output of SigGen is -1, the VCO outputfrequency is relatively low, and when the SigGen output is 1, the VCO output frequencyis relatively high. In our design target, we assume the ADC output bit width is 8 bit. Then2
8
=256 different values can be expressed at the output of ADC. The FM Receiver gets the8 bit signal every clock cycle and outputs the demodulated output.
[1] Phase Locked Loop (PLL)
The figure 2 shows the serially connnected PLL cirucit and Low Pass Filter circuit. Thissimple circuit configuration realizes the our target FM Receiver circuit.
Figure 2. PLL and LPF
In this section, PLL operation basic will be explained using some mathematicalequations.Since the input signal is Frequency Modulated, the input signal in(t) can be expressed asfollows,
 
 NCO is similar oscillator as VCO. although VCO is analog circuit, NCO is digital circuit.The output sinusoidal frequency is controlled by digital input value. The the oscillator iscalled as Numerical Controlled Oscillator (NCO). As shown in figure 1, since the PLLincludes the feedback loop, NCO outputs the same frequency sinusoidal with in(t). Then NCO output ref(t) is expressed as follows,By multiplying in(t) and ref(t) gives the c(t) as follows,The first term of the above equation corresponds to the phase difference between in(t)and ref(t). The second term corresponds to high frequency component. By removing thesecond term thru loop filtering, the phase difference can be obtained. This is the job of the Phase Comparator.As shown in the figure 2, the loop filter circuit is composed of small loop circuit. It doesaddition of c(t) and coefficient alpha=15/16=0.9375 multiplied D flipflop output. Thenloop filter output expressed as follows.This is a kind of averaging with the smaller weight for the older values. Then it has low pass filtering characteristics. NCO will be explained in the next section.
[2] Numerical Controlled Oscillator (NCO)
Figure 3 explains NCO.

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