Figure 1 shows the Frequency modulation and demodulation system. Signal generator (SigGen) generates the transmitting signal. In the figure 1, although only 1 or -1 areassumed for SigGen output, other value such as 0.5 is also acceptable. VCO representsVoltage Controlled Oscillator, which generates sinusoidal wave frequency-modulated bythe SigGen output. ADC is Analog to Digital Converter, which converts the analog FMsignal to descrete digitaized signals. When the output of SigGen is -1, the VCO outputfrequency is relatively low, and when the SigGen output is 1, the VCO output frequencyis relatively high. In our design target, we assume the ADC output bit width is 8 bit. Then2
=256 different values can be expressed at the output of ADC. The FM Receiver gets the8 bit signal every clock cycle and outputs the demodulated output.
 Phase Locked Loop (PLL)
The figure 2 shows the serially connnected PLL cirucit and Low Pass Filter circuit. Thissimple circuit configuration realizes the our target FM Receiver circuit.
Figure 2. PLL and LPF
In this section, PLL operation basic will be explained using some mathematicalequations.Since the input signal is Frequency Modulated, the input signal in(t) can be expressed asfollows,