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Kalai Project 1

Kalai Project 1

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Published by Balaji Rao N
Crystals are the unacknowledged pillars of modern technology. Without crystals, there would be no electronic industry, no photonic industry, no fiber optic communications, which depend materials/crystals such as semiconductors, super conductors, polarizer, transducers, radiation detectors, ultrasonic amplifiers, ferrites, magnetic garnets, solid state lasers, non-linear optics, piezo-electric, electro-optic, acoustic-optic, photosensitive, refractory of different grades, crystalline films for microelectronics and computer industries
Crystals are the unacknowledged pillars of modern technology. Without crystals, there would be no electronic industry, no photonic industry, no fiber optic communications, which depend materials/crystals such as semiconductors, super conductors, polarizer, transducers, radiation detectors, ultrasonic amplifiers, ferrites, magnetic garnets, solid state lasers, non-linear optics, piezo-electric, electro-optic, acoustic-optic, photosensitive, refractory of different grades, crystalline films for microelectronics and computer industries

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Published by: Balaji Rao N on Jun 09, 2009
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10/18/2011

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CHAPTER- 1INTRODUCTION TO CRYSTAL GROWTH1.1 INTRODUCTION
Crystals are the unacknowledged pillars of modern technology. Withoutcrystals, there would be no electronic industry, no photonic industry, no fiber opticcommunications, which depend materials/crystals such as semiconductors, superconductors, polarizer, transducers, radiation detectors, ultrasonic amplifiers, ferrites,magnetic garnets, solid state lasers, non-linear optics, piezo-electric, electro-optic,acoustic-optic, photosensitive, refractory of different grades, crystalline films formicroelectronics and computer industries.There are three major stages involved in this research. The first is theproduction of pure materials and improved equipment associated with thepreparation of these materials. The second is the production of single crystals firstin the laboratory and then extending it to commercial production. The third is thecharacterization and utilization of these crystals in devices.Atomic arrays that are periodic in three dimensions, with repeated distancesare called single crystals. It is clearly more difficult to prepare single crystal thanpoly-crystalline material and extra effort is justified because of the outstanding of the outstanding advantages of single crystals. The reason for growing single crystalsis. Many physical properties of solids are obscured or complicated by the effect of grain boundaries. The chief advantages are the anisotropy, uniformity of composition and the absence of boundaries between individual grains, which areinevitably present in polycrystalline materials. 
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The 7 Crystal systems(From least to most symmetric)The 14 Bravais Lattices
1. triclinic(none)2. monoclinic(1 diad)simplebase-centered3.orthorhombic(3 perpendicular diads)simplebase-centeredbody-centeredface-centered4.rhombohedral(aka, trigonal)(1 triad)5.tetragonal(1 tetrad)simplebody-centered6.hexagonal(1 hexad)7. cubic(4 triads)simple (SC)body-centered (BCC)face-centered (FCC)
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1.2TYPES OF SEVEN CRYSTALS:
 
1.2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF CRYSTALS:
There are four main categories of crystals, as grouped by their chemical andphysical properties:
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