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Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans and Agent Orange Exposure Committee on Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans and Agent Orange Exposure

Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans and Agent Orange Exposure Committee on Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans and Agent Orange Exposure

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Published by Ed Ball
Excerpts taken from IOM document to fill in the gaps where IOM did not have access to information at the time to make a proper conclusion.
Excerpts taken from IOM document to fill in the gaps where IOM did not have access to information at the time to make a proper conclusion.

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Published by: Ed Ball on Aug 23, 2013
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01/02/2014

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Blue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans and Agent Orange Exposure Committee onBlue Water Navy Vietnam Veterans and Agent Orange Exposure; Institute of Medicine (2011)
http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13026 pg 49/158“The herbicides were purchased from several US chemical manufacturers and transported viacommercial Merchant Marine ships from the United States to military installations in Vietnam. BlueWater Navy and Coast Guard vessels were not used to transport herbicides from the United States tothe Republic of Vietnam (Baldini, 2009).”
Note:
To include a subordinate U.S. Company,
lvon Watkins Dow chemical factory
operating on theisland community of New Plymouth, New Zealand.http://www.bhopal.net/worldmap/new_zealand_more.html 
 
The Commanding Officer of the USS White Plains AFS-4 wrote a statement showing they did transportchemicals used in the development of Agent Orange as loaded in Subic Bay Philippines for furthertransport to Vietnam. http://www.va.gov/vetapp11/files2/1117049.txt 
 
Pgs 53- 54/158
(Strictly FYI) 
CHEMICALS USED ABOARD US NAVY SHIPS
 
Blue Water Navy and Brown Water Navy personnel were exposed to many chemicals duringtheir shipboard deployments. Exposure may have occurred by ingestion, inhalation, or dermalcontact.Some common chemicals found aboard surface vessels and their potential associated adversehealth effects are presented in Table 3-2.The table is not meant to be comprehensive but rather  represents some of the chemicals to which naval personnel might have been exposed whileserving on ships in the Blue Water Navy during the Vietnam War. In
TABLE 3-2
Examples of Adverse Health Effects Associated with Chemical ExposureChemical Use Category Adverse Health Effect
a
 Polychlorinated biphenyls
b
 Insulation Cancer Trichloroethylene
c
 Degreaser Cancer Mercury
 Explosives, disinfectants, batteries Peripheral neuropathyBenzene
e
 Component of jet and other fuels,combustion product, cigarette smokeLeukemiaPhosgene
c
 Welding Chronic obstructive
 
 pulmonary diseaseAsbestos
b
 Insulation, cement pipe, sealants, plasters Cancer, pulmonary disease,asbestosisHydraulic fluid s
c
 Machinery lubricants Nervous system effectsLea
b
 Paint, cable and wire, plastics, pastes, caulks NeuropathyHydrazine
 Electroplating, soldering, boiler water Neurotoxicity
a
Long-term adverse health effects from Haz-Map Database, National Library of Medicine.
b
 Navy Occupational Safety and Health Program Manual for Forces Afloat. Volume I. SOH and Major Hazard-Specific Programs (Department of the Navy, 2002).
c
Trichloroethylene factsheet. Availableat:http://www.nmcphc.med.navy.mil/downloads/ep/factsheets/tce.pdf  (accessed January 19, 2011).
 Navy Occupational Safety and Health Program Manual for Forces Afloat. Volume II. Surface ShipSafety Standards (Department of the Navy, 2007).
e
Benzene factsheet: Availableat:http://www.nmcphc.med.navy.mil/downloads/ep/factsheets/benzene.pdf  (accessed January 19, 2011). Navy MIL-H-24776: Hydrazine Test Kit, Naval Shipboard. 1992. Availableat:http://engineers.ihs.com/document/abstract/NCSWDAAAAAAAAAAA (accessed January 19, 2011).
determining long-term adverse health effects of chemicals like those shown in Table 3-2,it is generally presumed that a person was exposed to a single chemical. However, in practice, personnel aboard navalvessels were exposed to a complex mixture of environmental contaminants. Those exposures couldoccur concurrently or sequentially. The importance of understanding the exposures is twofold.
Note:
(Naval personnel were assigned Preventive Maintenance tasks as well as rehabilitation work crews,better known as “tiger teams” that would have exposed them to various chemicals/materials in theperformance of their duties regardless of rating assigned. i.e., Seaman, cook, yeoman, radioman,signalman, etc…
Recommend reading further for justification of exposure based on shipboardventilation systems) 
 
Pg 89/158
“Exposure opportunity 
has been defined as the
 potential 
for exposure rather than as a quantitativedetermination of exposure (that is, relatable to dose) and is therefore only a crude estimate of dose(IOM, 2008). There are no environmental concentration data (for example, data on concentrations insoil and water) for the three populations of interest on which to base estimates of individual dose orexposure levels.”
Note:
In 2010 (
This IOM report was published May 20, 2011
) Section 2 page 2-7 provides environmentalconcentration data for Da Nang, 35 years later.http://www.agentorangerecord.com/images/uploads/modules/EA%20DNG.pdf  
 
Pg 98-99/158
Ingestion
 
Ground troops and Brown Water Navy personnel
“The committee was unable to locate information on water sources or water treatment of Vietnamese surface (or ground) water to determine the potential for TCDD contamination of freshwater supplies either on US military bases or from local municipal water supplies. Thecommittee was also unable to locate specific information about sources of potable water for ground troops and Brown Water Navy personnel. Westheider (2007) reported that water evaporators were used on some US military bases in Vietnam to produce potable water.Anecdotal information suggests that ground troops, particularly those who were in the field and away from firebases, would sometimes obtain their water from fast-running streams, rainwater,and shell holes in addition to carrying water canteens and rubber bladders(http://community.history.com/topic/10831/t/Usable-water.html).
Other information on water sources could not be identified. It is possible that some of the water sourceshad been sprayed with herbicide. Water treatment, if used, would probably be aimed at controllingpathogens and would not be expected to reduce TCDD contamination substantially other than byremoval of settleable solids. Thus, exposure of the two populations to Agent Orange–associated TCDDvia ingestion of freshwater is plausible.”
Note:
3,000 barrel water tank and treatment plant completed in Da Nang pg III-2 b.http://www.history.navy.mil/ar/docs/comnavforv/1966/July1966.pdf  MCB-133 Begins on Water Treatment Plant at Camp Tien Sha at Da Nang pg 49http://www.history.navy.mil/ar/docs/comnavforv/1967/February1967.pdf  2 Four Inch Water lines run from Monkey (Marble) Mountain to Camp Tien Sha in Da Nanghttp://www.history.navy.mil/ar/docs/comnavforv/1966/August1966.pdf  pg III-28 Inch Water Line From a Dam on Monkey Mountain to Camp Tien Sha in Da Nang pg 48

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