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Aceh, Nusantara, Khilafah - English -Complete-PDF

Aceh, Nusantara, Khilafah - English -Complete-PDF

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Published by: Rizky M Faisal on Aug 24, 2013
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Aceh,Nusantaraand theIslamic Khilafah
Indonesia, formerly known asNusantara(meaning Archipelago), is the largest Muslim countryin the Muslim world. Long beforeitsindependence,Indonesia was the homeland of manyIslamic kingdoms which were thecenters of Islamic power in Nusantara, extendingfromtheSultanate of Acehin the west to theSultanate of Ternate in the east.Historical records prove that theseIslamic sultanates were not independent on their own, ratherthey hada very close relationship with theKhilafahIslamiyahin Turkey (Uthmani Khilafah).This paper will review briefly some historical evidence that describes the unity and relationshipbetween the Islamic sultanates inNusantarawith the Khilafah Islamiyah.
Recognition of theIslamic Khilafah
The effect of the presence of theKhilafah(also referred toas
 Daulah Islamiyah
or Islamic State)onthe political life of the archipelagohadbeen felt since the early days ofitsestablishment.Themuslims weresuccessful inthe futuhat(conquestsor openings)ofthe Persian Empire and soonafterlarge parts of the Eastern Roman Empire, such as Egypt, Syria, and Palestine. Under theleadership of Umar ibn al-Khattab,theDaulah Islamiyahhad became theworld superpowersince the 7th century AD.When theKhilafahwasunder the rule ofthe Umayyads (660-749 AD),therulersof theIndonesianarchipelagowerestilltheHindus
 – 
who still embraced Hinduism
 – 
eventhough theyrecognizedthe greatness ofKhilafah.Therecognition of thegloryofKhilafah was provenby two letters sent by Maharaja of Srivijayato theKhilafah during the reign ofthe Umayyads. The first letterwassent to Muawiyyah, andthesecond letter was sent to Umar bin Abdul Aziz.
1
Thefirst letter was found in a
diwan
(archive)of BaniUmayyads by Abdul Malik ibn Umayr andwasdelivered to Abu Ya'yub Ats-Tsaqofi, whichwasthen deliveredtoAl-HaytsamibnAdi. Al-Jahizh who heardaboutthe letterfromAl-Haytsam, whotold about the introductory part of the letterasfollows:"
From the King of Al-Hindwhose animal cages have onethousand elephants, (and)whose palaceismade of gold and silver,who isservedbythe kings
’ 
daughters, and who has two great rivers that irrigate the aloetrees, to Muawiyah ...." 
2
The second letter was documented by Abd Rabbih (H/860-940 246-329 AD) in hiscompositionknown asAl-IqdAl-Farid.The fragment of theletterwasas follows:"
From the King of Kings ...: who is the descendant of a thousand kings ...to theKing of Arabia(UmaribnAbdul Aziz) whodoesnot associateGod withother gods. Ihadsent you a gift, which
 
wasactuallynot much, butit wasjust a sign of friendship, and I wantedyou to send me someonewho can teachme Islam, and explainto meitslaws.
"
3
In addition, Farooqi found anarchive oftheUthmani containing a petition from the Sultan Alaal-Din RiayatShahto Sultan Sulayman Al-Qanuniwhich wasbroughtbyHuseyn Effendi. In thisletter, Acehrecognized theUthmani leadership asKhilafah Islam. In addition, theletter alsocontainedanaccountofthe Portuguese military activitieswhichposeda big problem fortheMuslim traders andthepilgrims en route to Makkah. And thatthe assistance of thethe Uthmaniwas urgently neededto save theMuslims whowere beingslaughtered by the infidelFarangi(Portuguese).
4
Sulayman Al-Qanuni H/1566 died in 974 AD. However,the petitionof Aceh gainedsupportfromSultan Selim II (974-982 H/1566-1574AD),whoissuedthe commandto undertake amilitary expedition to Aceh. Around September 975 H/1567AD
, Kurtoglu Hızır Reis
, theTurkishAdmiral in Suez,sailed to Acehtogether witha number of rifleexperts, soldiers andartillery.The troops were orderedto beinAcehas long asthey wererequired by the Sultan.
5
Howeverthislarge fleet only partially reached Aceh sincethey werediverted during the journeyto quell the uprising in Yemen that ended in 979 H/1571AD.
6
According to historical records,the Turkish armywhoarrived in Aceh in 1566-1577 ADwere only around500soldiers,including firearms, rifles, and technical experts. With this assistance, Acehwas able to strikebackagainst thePortuguese in Malacca in 1568AD.
7
The presence of 
Kurtoglu Hızır Reis with
hisfleetofarmy was greetedwith great ceremonybythe Mu
slims of Aceh. Kurtoglu Hızır Reis
waslater given the title as governor (
wali
) of Aceh,
8
who wasthe official delegationof khalifah postedin the area. This suggests that the relationshipbetween Nusantara andthe UthmaniKhilafah was not onlybrotherlyrelations butalsopoliticalrelationsof the state. Thepresenceoftheguardianship of Turkey in Aceh shows that that Acehwasan integral part of the Khilafah Islamiyah.On the other hand,there weremanyMalaypolitical institutions in the Archipelagowhichreceived the title ofsultanfromcertain rulers in the Middle East. In 1048H/1638AD,theMayorof Banten, Abd al-Qodir (ruledfrom1037to1063H/1626-1651AD) was awarded the title of Sultan by Sharif of Makkah asaresult of a special missionhesent to the Holy Land. Meanwhile,the Sultanateof Aceh wasknown to have close ties with Turkish authorities and HaramaynUstmani. Likewise, Palembang and Makassar also had a special relationship with the rulerof Makkah.
9
At that time, the rulersof Makkahwereanintegralpart ofthe UthmaniKhilafahbasedin Turkey.Judging from the use of the terms, the Islamic sultanates of the archipelago associatedthemselvesasaninseparable part of theKhilafah. SomeJavanese classicalbooksmentioned this
 
matter.TheKingsofPasai (pp. 58, 61-62, 64), for example,calledthe official name of theSultanate ofSamudra Pasai as "SamudraDar al-Islam". The termofDar al-Islam was also usedin thebooksof lawto referthe Sultanate ofPahang. Nur al-Din al-Raniri,inBustan al-Salatin(eg, on pp. 31, 32, 47), called the Sultanate of Aceh as Dar al-Salam. The termwasalso used inPattani whenthelocal authorities, Paya Tu Naqpa, converted to Islam and took the name SultanIsmail ShahZill Allah fi-Alamwho reignedin the land of Pattani Dar al-Salam (Tale of Patani,1970:75).In classical Islamic political science, the worldwasdivided into two, namely Dar al-Islam andDar al-Harb. Dar al-Islam is an area that appliedtheIslamic lawandthesecurity is in the handsoftheMuslims,whileDar al-Harb is the opposite of Dar al-Islam. The use of the term "Dar al-Islam" or "Dar al-Salam" indicates that the Malay rulersacceptedgeopoliticalIslamicconceptionofthe divisionof thetwo world regions.This geopolitical conceptwasfurther crystallizedduringthe establishment of European nations initiatedby "thePeringgi" (Portuguese) then followed byother European nations. Later on,especially the Dutch and the Englishstartedtobecomerampant in the Indian Ocean and the Straits of Malacca (Sulalatal-Salatin, 1979 :244-246). Theyundertook physical colonization and spread Christianity through missions and missionaries.Uthmani Empire, as mentioned by Hurgronje (1994, pp.1631)
10
,waspro-active inpayingattention to the plight of Muslims in Indonesia by openingarepresentative government(consulate) in Batavia at the end of the 19th century. To the Muslims in Batavia,the Turkishconsul promised to fight for the emancipation of the rights of Arabsto beequal to those of Europe. In addition, Turkeyurged thatall Muslims in the Dutch East Indies Dutchbefreefromoppression.Above all, Acehwasmuch visited by scholars from different parts of the Islamic world. Sharif of Makkah sentanIslamic cleric,Sheikh Abdullah Kan'an,as teacher and preacherto Aceh.Inaround1582, two great scholars of Arab countries, Sheikh Abdul Khayr and Shaykh MuhammadYamaniarrived in Aceh. In addition,in Aceh itself there were a number ofscholars, such as Al-Sumatrani Shamsuddin and Abdul Rauf al-Singkeli.
11
Abdul Raufal-Singkelreceivedan offer from the Sultan of Aceh, Safiyat al-Din Shah,tofulfillthe post of a Qadiwhose title wasQadi al-Malik al-Adilwhichhadbeenvacant for some timesinceNur al-Din al-Ranirireturned toRanir (Gujarat). Afterdueconsiderations, Abdul Rauf accepted the offer.
12
Then, heofficially becamea Qadiwith the title ofQadi al-Malik al-Adil.Furthermore, as a Qadi, Sultan Abd Rauf was asked to write a book as a benchmark (qaanun)of theapplication of the Shari'aLaw.
13
The title of thebook is Mir'atal-Tullab.These varioushistoricalfacts furtherconfirms the recognition and the close relationship betweenAceh and the archipelago with the Uthmani Khilafah. In fact,the relationship wasnot limited to

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