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This article is about the mathematical constant. For the Greek letter, see  pi (letter). For  other uses, seePi (disambiguation).When a circle's diameter is 1, itscircumferenceis pi. ζ(3)– √2–  √3– √5– φ– α– e  –
π
Note that this continued fraction is not periodic.
Pi
or
π
is a mathematical constant whose value is the ratioof anycircle's circumference to its diameter inEuclidean space; this is the same value as the ratio of a circle's area tothe square of its radius. It is approximately equal to 3.14159 in the usual decimal notation(see the table for its representation in some other bases). π is one of the most importantmathematical and physical constants: many formulae from mathematics,science, andengineeringinvolve π.
π is an irrational number , which means that its value cannot be expressed exactly as a fraction
m
/
n
, where
m
and
n
areintegers.Consequently, itsdecimal representationnever  ends or repeats. It is also atranscendental number , which means that no finite sequenceof algebraic operations on integers (powers, roots, sums, etc.) can be equal to its value; proving this was a late achievement in mathematical history and a significant result of 19th century German mathematics. Throughout the history of mathematics, there has been much effort to determine π more accurately and to understand its nature; fascinationwith the number has even carried over into non-mathematical culture.The Greek letter π, often spelled out
pi
in text, was adopted for the number from theGreek word for
perimeter
"περίμετρος", first byWilliam Jonesin 1707, and popularized byLeonhard Euler in 1737.
The constant is occasionally also referred to as the
circularconstant
,
Archimedes' constant
(not to be confused with anArchimedes number

), or

Ludolph's number
(from a German mathematician whose efforts to calculate more of itsdigits became famous).
Contents
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Fundamentals
The letter π
Main article: pi (letter)

Lower-case π is used to symbolize the constant.The name of theGreek letter πis
pi
, and this spelling is commonly used intypographical contexts when the Greek letter is not available, or its usage could be problematic. It is notnormally capitalised (Π) even at the beginning of a sentence. When referring to thisconstant, the symbol π is always pronounced like "pie" inEnglish, which is theconventional English pronunciation of the Greek letter. In Greek, the name of this letter is pronounced/pi/.Theconstantis named "π" because "π" is the first letter of theGreek words περιφέρεια (periphery) and περίμετρος (perimeter), probably referring to its use in the formula tofind the circumference, or perimeter, of a circle.
Definition
Circumference = π × diameter InEuclidean plane geometry,π is defined as theratioof acircle'scircumferenceto its diameter :
The ratio
/
is constant, regardless of a circle's size. For example, if a circle has twice thediameter
of another circle it will also have twice the circumference
, preserving theratio
/
.