Although the Sun appears to "rise" from the horizon, it is actually the
motion that causes the Sunto appear. The illusion of a moving Sun results from Earth observers being in arotating reference frame;this apparent motion is so convincing that most cultures had mythologies and religions built aroundthegeocentricmodel, which prevailed until astronomerNicolaus Copernicusfirst formulatedtheheliocentricmodel in the 16th century.
ArchitectBuckminster Fullerproposed the terms"sunsight" and "sunclipse" to better represent the heliocentric model, though the terms have notentered into common language.Sunrise or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of theSunappears over the easternhorizoninthemorning.
Sunrise occurs before the Sun actually reaches the horizon because the Sun's image isrefractedby theEarth's atmosphere. The average amount of refraction is 34arcminutes,though this amount variesbased on atmospheric conditions.
Also, unlike most other solar measurements, sunrise occurs when the Sun's
, rather than itscenter, appears to cross the horizon. The apparent radius of the Sun at the horizon is 16 arcminutes.
The timing of sunrise varies throughout the year and is also affected by the viewer's longitude andlatitude, altitude, and time zone. These changes are driven by theaxial tiltof Earth, daily rotation of theEarth, the planet's movement in its annualellipticalorbit around the Sun, and the Earth and Moon'spaired revolutions around each other. Theanalemmacan be used to make approximate predictions of the time of sunrise.
Sunrise vs. Sunset colors
Sunset colors are sometimes more brilliant than sunrise colors because evening air typically containsmore large particles, such as clouds and smog, than morning air. These particles glow orange and reddue to Mie scattering during sunsets and sunrises because they are illuminated with the longer wavelengths that remain after Rayleigh scattering.
If the concentration of large particles is too high (such as during heavy smog), the color intensity andcontrast is diminished and the lighting becomes more homogenous. When very few particles are present,the reddish light is more concentrated around the Sun and is not spread across and away from thehorizon.
The Sun appears larger at sunrise than it does while higher in the sky, in a manner similar tothemoon illusion.
The Sun appears to rise above the horizon and circle the Earth, but it is actually the Earth that isrotating, with the Sun remaining fixed. This effect results from the fact that an observer on Earthis in arotating reference frame.
"to become day") is the time that marks the beginning of thetwilightbeforesunrise.It is recognized by the presence of weak sunlight, while the Sun itself is stillbelow thehorizon.Dawn should not be confused with sunrise, which is the moment when the leadingedge of the Sun itself appears above the horizon.The duration of the twilight period between dawn and sunrise varies greatly depending on theobserver's latitude, from a little over twenty minutes inequatorial regions,to many hours inpolarregions,to several weeks at the poles.
the moment after which the sky is no longer completely dark; formally defined as the time at which theSun is 18degreesbelow the horizon in themorning.
During dawn (and dusk) it is usually possible (provided that the sky is cloud-free) to see approximately inwhich direction the Sun is (though it's below the horizon). Though it is possible to localize the directionof the Sun during
astronomical dawn and dusk
, people in general experience astronomical dawn anddusk as night, even without clouds.Zenithis dark and more than just the brightest shining stars can beseen (except low above the horizon in the direction of the sun).At
there is no darkness in any direction, nor at zenith. The sky is bright, even when cloudy. Inmid and northern Scandinavia, summer nights never get any further than to civil dusk or dawn. Thisperiod of "bright nights" is longer at higher latitudes (further north).North of thepolar circle(at