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Sun Light (Greater Light)

Sun Light (Greater Light)

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Published by SonofMan
The greater light was made on the 4th day and it is called day.
The greater light was made on the 4th day and it is called day.

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Published by: SonofMan on Aug 25, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Although the Sun appears to "rise" from the horizon, it is actually the
motion that causes the Sunto appear. The illusion of a moving Sun results from Earth observers being in a rotating reference frame;  this apparent motion is so convincing that most cultures had mythologies and religions built aroundthe geocentric model, which prevailed until astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus first formulated the heliocentric model in the 16th century.
 Architect Buckminster Fuller proposed the terms "sunsight" and "sunclipse" to better represent the heliocentric model, though the terms have notentered into common language.Sunrise or sun up is the instant at which the upper edge of the Sun appears over the eastern horizon in the morning.
 The term can also refer to the entire process of the Sun crossing the horizon and itsaccompanying atmospheric effects.
Beginning and end
Astronomically, sunrise occurs for only an instant: the moment at which the upper limb of the Sunappears tangent to the horizon.
 However, the term
commonly refers to periods of time bothbefore and after this point:
Twilight,the period during which the sky is light but the Sun is not yet visible (morning), or has just passed out of visibility (evening). The beginning of morning twilight is called 
The period after the Sun rises during which striking colors and atmospheric effects are stillseen.
 Measurement[edit]  A diagram of the Sun at sunrise, showing the effects of atmospheric refraction.
The sunrise equation as follows can be used to derive the time of  sunrise and sunset for any solar declination and latitude in terms of local solar time when sunrise andsunset actually occur: where:is the hour angle at either sunrise (when
value is taken) or sunset (when
value istaken); is the latitude of the observer on the Earth;is the sun declination.  Angle
Sunrise occurs before the Sun actually reaches the horizon because the Sun's image isrefracted by the Earth's atmosphere. The average amount of refraction is 34 arcminutes,though this amount varies based on atmospheric conditions.
 Also, unlike most other solar measurements, sunrise occurs when the Sun's
upper limb
, rather than itscenter, appears to cross the horizon. The apparent radius of the Sun at the horizon is 16 arcminutes.
 These two angles combine to define sunrise to occur when the Sun's center is 50 arcminutes below thehorizon, or 90.83° from the zenith.
Time of day
The timing of sunrise varies throughout the year and is also affected by the viewer's longitude andlatitude, altitude, and time zone. These changes are driven by the axial tilt of Earth, daily rotation of the Earth, the planet's movement in its annual elliptical orbit around the Sun, and the Earth and Moon's paired revolutions around each other. The analemmacan be used to make approximate predictions of  the time of sunrise.
Sunrise vs. Sunset colors 
Sunset colors are sometimes more brilliant than sunrise colors because evening air typically containsmore large particles, such as clouds and smog, than morning air. These particles glow orange and reddue to Mie scattering during sunsets and sunrises because they are illuminated with the longer wavelengths that remain after Rayleigh scattering.
If the concentration of large particles is too high (such as during heavy smog), the color intensity andcontrast is diminished and the lighting becomes more homogenous. When very few particles are present,the reddish light is more concentrated around the Sun and is not spread across and away from thehorizon.
Optical illusions and other phenomena
This is a 
,a very particular kind of  Parhelion 
Atmospheric refraction causes the Sun to be seen while it is still below the horizon.
The Sun appears larger at sunrise than it does while higher in the sky, in a manner similar tothe moon illusion. 
The Sun appears to rise above the horizon and circle the Earth, but it is actually the Earth that isrotating, with the Sun remaining fixed. This effect results from the fact that an observer on Earthis in a rotating reference frame. 
Occasionally a 
 occurs, demonstrating a very particular kind of  Parhelion belonging to the optical phenomenon family of  halos. 
Sometimes just before sunrise or after sunset a green flash can be seen. This is an optical phenomenon in which a green spot is visible above the sun, usually for no more than a secondor two.
(from an Old English verb
"to become day") is the time that marks the beginning of the twilight before sunrise.It is recognized by the presence of weak sunlight, while the Sun itself is still below the horizon.Dawn should not be confused with sunrise, which is the moment when the leading edge of the Sun itself appears above the horizon.The duration of the twilight period between dawn and sunrise varies greatly depending on theobserver's latitude, from a little over twenty minutes in equatorial regions,to many hours in polar regions,to several weeks at the poles.
Astronomical dawn
the moment after which the sky is no longer completely dark; formally defined as the time at which theSun is 18 degrees below the horizon in the morning.
Nautical dawn
the time at which there is enough sunlight for the horizon and some objects to be distinguishable;formally, when the Sun is 12 degrees below the horizon in the morning.
Civil dawn
that time at which there is enough light for objects to be distinguishable, so that outdoor activities cancommence; formally, when the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the morning.
 During dawn (and dusk) it is usually possible (provided that the sky is cloud-free) to see approximately inwhich direction the Sun is (though it's below the horizon). Though it is possible to localize the directionof the Sun during
astronomical dawn and dusk 
, people in general experience astronomical dawn anddusk as night, even without clouds. Zenith is dark and more than just the brightest shining stars can be seen (except low above the horizon in the direction of the sun).At
civil dawn
there is no darkness in any direction, nor at zenith. The sky is bright, even when cloudy. Inmid and northern Scandinavia, summer nights never get any further than to civil dusk or dawn. Thisperiod of "bright nights" is longer at higher latitudes (further north).North of the polar circle (at
66°30′ N) the Sun does not set at all at the
 summer solstice.The period of  no sunset is longer closer to the North Pole.The angular radius of the polar circle is equal to the angle between the plane of Earth's equator and that of the ecliptic.At true solar noon at London (latitude

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