ROLLING is the process of reducing the thickness or changing the cross section of a longwork-piece by compressive forces applied through a set of opposed rotating rolls. ThisPrimary Working operation takes a solid piece of metal (generally from a cast state, suchas an ingot) and breaks it down successively into shapes such as slabs, plates, and billets.Rolling is a bulk deformation process. The term bulk deformation is applied to theprocessing of workpieces having a relatively small surface area-to-volume (or surfacearea-to-thickness) ratio. In all bulk deformation processing, the thickness or cross-sectionof the workpiece changes. The other three basic bulk-deformation processes for metalsare forging, extrusion, and drawing of rod and wire.Temperature, size, and shape of the workpiece can group rolling processes. For example,using temperature as a criterion, the categories would be hot rolling and cold rolling. If weare interested in size, it is important to note that plates are generally regarded as having athickness greater than 6 mm (1/4 in.) whereas sheets are generally less than 6 mm thick.Flat Rolling, strip rolling, or simply rolling, is the most basic operation, where the rolledproducts are flat plates and sheets, and the main purpose is to reduce the thickness of thematerial. This process results in the production of flat plate, sheet, and foil in long lengths,at high speeds, and with good surface finish, especially in cold rolling. It requires highcapital investment and low to moderate labor cost.
 Classification of Rolling Processes
Rolling produces many products; including flat sheet, I
beams, round bars, and tubularproducts. Steel & Aluminum are the most commonly rolled materials.Classification based on Temperature: Hot rolling & cold rollingClassification based on Shape: Flat rolling & Shape rollingClassification based on Size of Flat rolling:
Slabs [A>16”] continued by further rolling to plates [> 6mm] and sheets [<6mm]
Billets [1.5”x1.5” to 6”x6”] continued by further rolling to rods & bars
Blooms [> 6”x6”] continued by further form rolling into sections
Classification based on Rolling Mills (Stands):2-high, 2-high reversible, 3-high, 4-high, cluster, planetary, and Tandem rolling millsOther Rolling Processes: Ring Rolling, Thread Rolling, Mannesmann Rolling, etc.