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Metal Rolling

Metal Rolling

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Published by klawsis
This report contains the defenition of metal rolling process , its classifications , process defects , types of rolling mills , analysis of sheet rolling ,calculation of power required & criteria to usein process selection.
Prepared by mechanical engineering student ain shams university.
This report contains the defenition of metal rolling process , its classifications , process defects , types of rolling mills , analysis of sheet rolling ,calculation of power required & criteria to usein process selection.
Prepared by mechanical engineering student ain shams university.

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Published by: klawsis on Jun 10, 2009
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01/09/2014

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Metal Rolling
 [01] Definition
 
ROLLING is the process of reducing the thickness or changing the cross section of a longwork-piece by compressive forces applied through a set of opposed rotating rolls. ThisPrimary Working operation takes a solid piece of metal (generally from a cast state, suchas an ingot) and breaks it down successively into shapes such as slabs, plates, and billets.Rolling is a bulk deformation process. The term bulk deformation is applied to theprocessing of workpieces having a relatively small surface area-to-volume (or surfacearea-to-thickness) ratio. In all bulk deformation processing, the thickness or cross-sectionof the workpiece changes. The other three basic bulk-deformation processes for metalsare forging, extrusion, and drawing of rod and wire.Temperature, size, and shape of the workpiece can group rolling processes. For example,using temperature as a criterion, the categories would be hot rolling and cold rolling. If weare interested in size, it is important to note that plates are generally regarded as having athickness greater than 6 mm (1/4 in.) whereas sheets are generally less than 6 mm thick.Flat Rolling, strip rolling, or simply rolling, is the most basic operation, where the rolledproducts are flat plates and sheets, and the main purpose is to reduce the thickness of thematerial. This process results in the production of flat plate, sheet, and foil in long lengths,at high speeds, and with good surface finish, especially in cold rolling. It requires highcapital investment and low to moderate labor cost.
 [02] Classification of Rolling Processes
Rolling produces many products; including flat sheet, I
 –
beams, round bars, and tubularproducts. Steel & Aluminum are the most commonly rolled materials.Classification based on Temperature: Hot rolling & cold rollingClassification based on Shape: Flat rolling & Shape rollingClassification based on Size of Flat rolling:
Slabs [A>16”] continued by further rolling to plates [> 6mm] and sheets [<6mm]
 
Billets [1.5”x1.5” to 6”x6”] continued by further rolling to rods & bars
 
Blooms [> 6”x6”] continued by further form rolling into sections
 Classification based on Rolling Mills (Stands):2-high, 2-high reversible, 3-high, 4-high, cluster, planetary, and Tandem rolling millsOther Rolling Processes: Ring Rolling, Thread Rolling, Mannesmann Rolling, etc.
 
 
[03] Hot Rolling
Rolling is first carried out at elevated temperatures (hot rolling), where the coarse-grained,brittle, and porous structure of the ingot or continuously cast metal is broken down into awrought structure, with finer grain size. Temperature ranges for hot rolling are similar tothose for forging, with 925-1250
0
C for Alloy steels.Changes in the grain structure of cast or large-grain wrought metals during hot rolling. Hotrolling is an effective way to reduce grain size in metals for improved strength and ductility.
Cast structures of ingots of continuous castings are converted to a wrought structure by hot working.
 
 
[04] Cold Rolling
Cold rolling is the process of rolling at low temperatures. It is usual applied as finishingprocess after hot rolling to enhance strength and hardness, and ensure high surfacequality.During cold rolling, annealing may take place to facilitate further cold rolling. Cold rolling isthe process of rolling at low temperatures. It is usual to roll very large quantities of materialas long uninterrupted coils.The loads must remain steady, therefore it is common for several rolling mills to work intandem, and it is essential that the tension in the strip between mills be held within closelimits to maintain an even gauge. As the thickness of the slab is reduced, its lengthincreases and the speed of the outgoing strip may reach values up to about 5,000 ft/min.One benefit of cold rolling is cold working, which increases the strength of a product.
[05] Flat Rolling
The most basic operation in rolling is flatrolling, that produces flat plates andsheets, which are used in applicationssuch as ship hulls, and nuclear vessels, aswell as food containers and Aluminum foil.A rolled sheet may not be sufficiently flatas it leaves the roll gap because ofvariations in the material or in theprocessing parameters during rolling. Toimprove flatness, the strip is then passedthrough a series of leveling rolls.
 
[06] Shape Rolling
Shape rolling involves the production of various structural shapes, such as I-beams, athigh speeds. In general, it requires shaped rolls and expensive equipment, low tomoderate labor cost and moderate operator skill.

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