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Published by: Aries Riad on Jun 10, 2009
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Caballero 1Mariana CaballeroDr. Mark AuneEnglish 76013 November 2003PHONOLOGYWhat is phonology?Phonology is the component of a grammar made up of the elements and principlesthat determinehow sounds vary and pattern in a language.The study of phonology attempts to discover general principles that underlie thepatterning ofsounds in human language.BASIC CONCEPTSFeatures: The smallest unit of analysis of phonological structure, combinations ofwhich makeup segments.Segments: Individual speech sounds.Syllables: A unit of linguistic structure that consists of a syllabic element andany segments thatare associated with it.Caballero 2Allophones: Variants of a phoneme, usually in complementary distribution andphoneticallysimilar.Environment: The phonetic environment in which a sound occurs.Phoneme: A contrastive segmental unit with predictable phonetic variants.Glides: Sounds that are produced with an articulation like that of a vowel, butmove quickly toanother articulation.Phonemes are enclosed in slanted brackets / /; phonetic notation is indicated bysquarebrackets [ ]SEGMENTS IN CONTRASTSegments are said to contrast (or to be distinctive or be in opposition) whentheir presence alonemay distinguish forms with different meanings from each other.Example: the segments [s] and [z] contrast in the words sip and zip.Minimal pairs : consist of two forms with distinct meanings that differ by onlyone segmentfound in the same position in each form. It is on the basis of sound and notspelling that minimalpairs are established.Example: zip and sip.Caballero 3COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTIONIt is the distribution of allophones in their respective phonetic environmentssuch that one neverappears in the same phonetic context as the other.Example: Not all ls in English are pronounced the same way. Some are voiced andsome arevoiceless. Voiced: blue; gleam; slip.Voiceless: plow; clap; clear.The voicelessness the ls is a consequence of their phonetic environment.Since no voiceless l occurs in the same phonetic environment as a voicelessnessone (and viceversa), it is said that the two variants are in complementary distribution.PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES
Predictable variants of certain segments are grouped together into a contrastivephonological unitcalled a phoneme. These variants, which are referred to as allophones, are usuallyphoneticallysimilar and are frequently found in complementary distribution.Allophonic variation: is found throughout language. In fact, every speech sound weutter is anallophone of some phoneme and can be grouped together with other phoneticallysimilar soundsinto a class that is represented by a phoneme on a phonological level ofrepresentation.Caballero 4LANGUAGE-SPECIFIC PATTERNSAlthough the phenomenon of allophonic variation is universal, the patterning ofphonemes andallophones is language-specific. What is discovered for one language, may not holdtrue foranother.SYLLABLESThe syllable is usually composed of a nucleus (usually a vowel) and its associatednonsyllabicsegments.Internal structure of a syllableNucleus (N): is the syllable’s only obligatory member. It is a syllabic elementthat forms the coreof a syllable.Coda (C) consists of those elements that follow the nucleus in the same syllable.Rhyme (R) is made up of the nucleus and coda.Onset (O) is made up of those elements that precede the rhyme in the samesyllable.Caballero 5People don’t syllabify words randomly. That is because syllables comply withcertain constraintsthat prohibit them (in English) from beginning with an unnatural sequence.Constraints can be stated for each of the terminal subsyllabic units O, N, and C.Phonotactics, the set of constraints on how sequences of segments pattern, formspart of aspeaker’s knowledge of the phonology of his or her language. Example: when we tryto adjustsyllables of a foreign language, to conform with the pronunciation requirements ofour ownlanguage.FEATURESLinguists view segments as composed of smaller elements. These elements are calledfeatures:the units of phonological structure that make up segments.Speech is produced by a number of coordinated articulatory activities such asvoicing, tongueposition, lip rounding and so on. Features such as [voice], [high], [round]—features are writtenin square brackets—directly reflect this activity, in that each feature is rootedin anindependently controllable aspect of speech production.Matrix is the representation of a segment with features. Each feature or group offeatures definesa specific property of the segment. This representation is in binary terms: [+]means that afeature is present, and [-] means that it is absent.
Example: Feature matrix for the English vowel [a]Caballero 6+syllabic These features define the segment as-consonantal vowel, consonant, or glide (here, a vowel)+sonorant-high These features define the placement+low of the tongue (here, a low back vowel)+back-round This feature defines lip rounding (here, unrounded)+tense This feature defines tenseness/laxness (here, tense)The features of English· Major class features: features that represent the classes consonant, obstruentandsonorant.· Laryngeal features: features that represent states of the larynx.· Place features: features that represent place of articulation.· Dorsal features: features that represent placement of the body of the tongue.· Manner features: features that represent manner of articulation.SCHOOLS OF PHONOLOGY· Structuralism- The Prague school- Trubetzkoy- American distributionalism- Morphophonemics- Binarity and biuniqueness· JakobsonCaballero 7- Universalism- Acoustic features· Generative Phonology- Chomsky and Halle, The Sound Pattern of English (SPE)- Systematic phonetic and systematic phonemic representations- Abstractness- Morpheme structure constraints- Redundancy rules- Rules- Features- Markedness· Phonological Theories after SPE- Natural Phonology (Stampe)- Natural Generative Phonology (Vennemann, Hooper)- Autosegmental Phonology (Goldsmith)- Metrical Phonology (Liberman and Prince)- Dependency Phonology (Anderson and Durand)- Lexical Phonology (Kiparsky)- Underspecification (Arcangeli)- Feature Geometry (Sagey, Clements)- Govemment Phonology (Kaye, Lowenstamm and Vergnaud)- Articulatory Phonology (Browman and Goldstein)- Particle Phonology (Schane)Caballero 8- Cognitive Phonology (Lakoff)- Prosodic Phonology (Nespor and Vogel)- Moraic Phonology (Hayes)- Harmonic Phonology (Goldsmith)- Optimality Theory (Prince and Smolensky)- Declarative Phonology (Bird and Klein)Caballero 9

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