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Phonology & Morphology MLA Research Paper

Phonology & Morphology MLA Research Paper

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Published by: Aries Riad on Jun 10, 2009
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People's Democratic Republic Of AlgeriaMinistry Of Higher Education And Scientific ResearchMentouri University (Constantine) Phonology & Morphology By : Aries RiadG16 Academic Year: 2008/2009The Outline : 1-Introduction 2-Phonology: -What is phonology?-Basic Concepts.-Complementary Distribution.-Phonemes And Allophones.-Syllables. 3-Morphology: -What is morphology?-closed & open class Items.-compounding.-Phrasal verbs. 4-The Difference between morphology &phonology. 5-Conclusion.The aim of phonology is to determine the principles that govern soundstructure in language while Phonology deals with the abstract mentalrepresentation of sound, rather than the properties of the physical speech signal.so what is phonology?and what is morphology and what is the difference betweenthem?What is phonology?Phonology is the component of a grammar made up of the elements and principlesthat determine how sounds vary and pattern in a language.The study of phonology attempts to discover general principles that underlie thepatterning of sounds in human language.
 
BASIC CONCEPTS:Features: The smallest unit of analysis of phonological structure, combinations ofwhich make up segments.Segments: Individual speech sounds.Syllables: A unit of linguistic structure that consists of a syllabic element andany segments that are associated with it. Allophones: Variants of a phoneme, usually in complementary distribution andphonetically similar.Environment: The phonetic environment in which a sound occurs.Phoneme: A contrastive segmental unit with predictable phonetic variants.Glides: Sounds that are produced with an articulation like that of a vowel, butmove quickly to another articulation.Phonemes are enclosed in slanted brackets / /, phonetic notation is indicated bysquare brackets [ ]found in the same position in each form. It is on the basis of sound and notspelling that minimal pairs are established.COMPLEMENTARY DISTRIBUTION:It is the distribution of allophones in their respective phonetic environmentssuch that one never appears in the same phonetic context as the other.Example: Not all ls in English are pronounced the same way. Some are voiced andsome are voiceless.Voiced: blue; gleam; slip.Voiceless: plow; clap; clear.The voicelessness the ls is a consequence of their phonetic environment.Since no voiceless l occurs in the same phonetic environment as a voicelessnessone (and vice versa), it is said that the two variants are in complementarydistribution.PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES:Predictable variants of certain segments are grouped together into a contrastivephonological unit called a phoneme. These variants, which are referred to asallophones, are usually phoneticallysimilar and are frequently found in complementary distribution.Allophonic variation: is found throughout language. In fact, every speech sound weutter is an allophone of some phoneme and can be grouped together with otherphonetically similar soundsinto a class that is represented by a phoneme on a phonological level ofrepresentation.Although the phenomenon of allophonic variation is universal, the patterning ofphonemes and allophones is language-specific. What is discovered for one language,may not hold true foranother.SYLLABLES:The syllable is usually composed of a nucleus (usually a vowel) and its associatednonsyllabic segments.Internal structure of a syllableNucleus (N): is the syllable’s only obligatory member. It is a syllabic elementthat forms the core of a syllable.Coda (C):consists of those elements that follow the nucleus in the same syllable.Rhyme (R):is made up of the nucleus and coda.Onset (O): is made up of those elements that precede the rhyme in the samesyllable. 
 
People don’t syllabify words randomly. That is because syllables comply withcertain constraints that prohibit them (in English) from beginning with anunnatural sequence.Constraints can be stated for each of the terminal subsyllabic units O, N, and C.Phonotactics, the set of constraints on how sequences of segments pattern, formspart of a speaker’s knowledge of the phonology of his or her language.Example: when we try to adjust syllables of a foreign language, to conform withthe pronunciation requirements of our ownlanguage. What is Morphology?Morphology is the field of linguistics that studies the internal structure ofwords. (Words as units in the lexicon are the subject matter of lexicology.) Whilewords are generally accepted as being thesmallest units of syntax, it is clear that in most (if not all) languages, wordscan be related to other words by rules.For example, English speakers recognize that the words dog, dogs, and dog catcherare closely related. English speakers recognize these relations from their tacitknowledge of the rules of word formation in English.They infer intuitively that dog is to dogs as cat is to cats;similarly, dog is to dog catcher as dish is to dishwasher. The rules understood bythe speaker reflect specific patterns (or regularities) in the way words areformed from smaller units and how thosesmaller units interact in speech.In this way, morphology is the branch of linguistics that studiespatterns of word formation within and across languages, and attempts to formulaterules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages.A Morpheme: is the smallest meaningful unit. In a word, the morpheme that carriesthe core meaning of the word itself is called lexical morpheme or lexeme.CLOSED CLASS ITEMS & OPEN CLASS ITEMS:Words come in two varieties: functional words, and lexical words. The differencehas to do with their meaning (purely grammatical , lexical and referential), andwith what you cam do out of them:you can invent a new lexical word, but you have no power on functional words.Functional words usually evolve from lexical words through a process calledgrammaticalization.Ex: Will.COMPOUNDING:The simplest way to form new words out of old elements is by compounding.Compounding in English normally has the following properties:1- Compounds have a head, which gives them their main semantic and syntacticproperties.Example:-syntactically, the expression blackboard is a noun, as is its head board-semantically, the expression blackboard refers to things that are kinds ofboards, as the noun board.2- The head comes last3- The stress comes first4- The meaning of the whole is not entirely predictable on the basis of themeaning of the parts.In the following examples, the syllable with the main stress is indicated in bold.In each pair, a. is not a compound because (a) it has its main stress on the finalelement, and (b) the meaning of the whole is entirely predictable from the meaningof the parts (e.g. a black board is simply a board that is black).By contrast, b. is a compound: the main stress is on the first element, and themeaning of the whole is not entirely predictable from the meaning of the parts (a

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