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DC Motor Speed Controller Design

# DC Motor Speed Controller Design

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06/12/2013

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Designing a digital speed controller for a DC motor
By:
Thu Nguyen vanDept. of Automatic Control Hanoi University of Technology Vietnam
Abstract:
Controlling the speed of a DC motor is a classical problem in both electrical fieldand in automatic control. There have been many types of controllers from simpleto complex, from analog to digital;This paper only introduces an approach to the solution. To monitor the speedand get high quality, we must control the torque of the motor by means of manipulating its armature current. Thus we have a cascade controller in which theinner loop controls the motor armature current and the outer one handles thespeed.The both loops are analyzed and designed in the z-plane using the mostadvantage method which the z-plane provides.Modeling of the DC motor:We have a DC motor with the parameters from [1]:Moment of inertia: J= 0.012 kg.m
2
Electric resistance: Ra= 250
mΩ
Electric inductance: La= 4 mH

Back EMF constant: ke= 236.8Mechanical constant: k
M
= 38.2
Flux ψ= 0.04 V.s
The equations describing the motor are shown as follow:Armature voltage:Back e.m.f:The Speed:Torque of the motor:
Designing the current control loop
When designing the current loop, which is much faster than the speed one, thevariation of the back emf e
A
, therefore, can be neglected.Then the current loop has the block diagram as:

With the smallest time constant in the loop is T
reg
= 5 mS, I choose the sample timeof the loop to be T
reg
/10= 0.5 mS.Then we can derive the transfer function of the open loop in S-plane as:Using Matlab to get the transfer function of the loop in Z-plane assuming that weuse the ZOH and the sample time is T
sample
= 0.5 mS we obtain:Now we are designing-finding the transfer function-of the controller.As mentioned above, the current loop must be very fast compared to the speedloop. To obtain this small time constant, I choose Deadbeat method to meet therequirement.In the Deadbeat method, the objective of the design is to have the error betweenthe desired value, the reference, become zero after a number of cycles. Because
Block diagram of the current control loop
Zero-OrderHold1/RaTa.s+1Transfer Fcn1VtbTtb.s+1Transfer FcnnumGrz(z)denGrz(z)Discrete Filter