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Infectious Coryza

Infectious Coryza

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Published by TAMIL
useful for veterinarians
useful for veterinarians

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Published by: TAMIL on Jun 11, 2009
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02/03/2013

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Infectious Coryza
Introduction
A usually acute, sometimes chronic, highly infectious disease of chickens, occasionally pheasants and guinea-fowl, characterised by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, especially nasal and sinus mucosae.Infectious Coryza is caused by the bacterium
 Haemophilus paragallinarum
and is seen inmany countries especially in multi-age farms that are never depopulated. Morbidity ishigh but mortality low if uncomplicated although it may be up to 20%.The route of infection is conjunctival or nasal with an incubation period of 1-3 daysfollowed by rapid onset of disease over a 2-3 day period with the whole flock affectedwithin 10 days, resulting in increased culling. Carriers are important with transmissionvia exudates and by direct contact. It is not egg transmitted.The bacterium survives 2-3 days outside the bird but is easily killed by heat, drying anddisinfectants. Intercurrent respiratory viral and bacterial infections are predisposingfactors.
Signs
Facial swelling.
Purulent ocular and nasal discharge.
Swollen wattles.
Sneezing.
Dyspnoea.
Loss in condition.
Drop in egg production of 10-40%.
Inappetance.
Post-mortem lesions
Catarrhal inflammation of nasal passages and sinuses.
Conjunctivitis.
Eye-lid adherence.
Caseous material in conjunctiva/sinus.
 
Tracheitis.
Diagnosis
A presumptive diagnosis may be made on signs, lesions, identification of the bacteria in aGram-stained smear from sinus. Confirmation is by isolation and identification - requiresX (Haematin) and V (NAD) factors, preferably in raised CO
2
such as a candle jar.Serology: HI, DID, agglutination and IF have all been used but are not routine.Differentiate from Mycoplasmosis, respiratory viruses, chronic or localised pasteurellosisand vitamin A deficiency.
Treatment
Streptomycin, Dihydrostreptomycin, sulphonamides, tylosin, erythromycin.Flouroquinolones are bactericidal and might prevent carriers.
Prevention
Stock coryza-free birds on an all-in/all-out production policy. Bacterin at intervals if history justifies or if multi-age; at least two doses are required. Commercial bacterinsmay not fully protect against all field strains but reduce the severity of reactions. Liveattenutated strains have been used but are more risky. Controlled exposure has also been practised.Vaccines are used in areas of high incidence. Birds recovered from challenge of one sero-type are resistant to others, while bacterins only protect against homologous strains
Occurrence:
Mainly in warm and tropical / sub-tropical climates.
Species affected:
Chickens.
Age affected:
All ages.
Causes:
Gram negative, non-motile bacterium- Hemophilus gallinarum.
Effects:
The organism gives off a strong odour of rotten eggs. Symptoms include wateryeyes, facial oedema, diarrhoea, anorexia, and there may be a high cull rate (20%). Nasaldischarge, swollen infraorbital sinus, laboured breathing, drop in egg production and poor shell quality can also occur.
Detailed causes:
 Infectious coryza affects chickens of 15-30 weeks. It is more common in tropical humidareas and where multi-age pullet farms are kept. Coryza means head cold.The causative agent, Hemophilus gallinarum is a gram-negative, polar-staining, non-motile bacterium and appears as short rods or coccobacilli.
 
 Mode of transmission
 Faecal, aerosol.
 Special note
 It is found in Southern US and Third World Countries (multi-age farms) and is commonin backyard flocks. Several serotypes (A,B,C) make successful vaccination difficult.
Clinical signs:
 Strong odour (rotten eggs) given off by the organism. Water eyes, facial oedema,diarrhoea, anorexia and high cull rate (20%) may be evident. Nasal discharge, swolleninfraorbital sinus, laboured breathing, drop in egg production and shell quality can occur.
 Postmortem lesions
 Oral or tracheal lesions, catarrhal inflammation of nasal passages and sinuses may beseen.Congested lungs, facial swelling, swollen wattles, pneumonia, air sacculitis andconjunctivitis may be evident.
Diagnosis:
 Respiratory signs, odour and isolation of organisms are important. The organism is a polar-staining, facultative anaerobic gram-negative rod. Brain heart infusion and NAD-yields tiny dew-drop colonies.Serologic tests include agar gel precipitin and haemagglutination-inhibition.It simulates many respiratory problems, fowl pox (FP), vitamin A deficiency, fowlcholera (FC) and mycoplasma infections.
Treatment and control:
 
 Prevention
 Bacterin at 10-12 and 16-18 weeks and one age per farm can help prevent the disease.Destroy all clinically ill birds to contain spread of the organism.Live vaccine using homologous field strain can be given by water in tropical areas where bacterin is not effective.
Treatment 
 Administering bacterin at 8 and 16-18 weeks and keeping one age per farm can help prevent the disease. Treatment of all clinically ill birds will contribute to containing thespread of the organism
 

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