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TRANSFORMING CURRENT AWARENESS THROUGH RSS: How two projects (ticTOCs and Gold Dust) are using RSS to improve the information landscape for the 21st century researcher

TRANSFORMING CURRENT AWARENESS THROUGH RSS: How two projects (ticTOCs and Gold Dust) are using RSS to improve the information landscape for the 21st century researcher

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Published by lisajrogers
This paper looks at the current situation with respect to RSS and then reports upon the findings of the ticTOCs and Gold Dust projects. We will look at the lessons learnt from developing the ticTOCs service, and also report on two iterations of the Gold Dust development and use cycles. We will deliver an appraisal of the effectiveness of the raft of techniques being employed by Gold Dust. How effective are current data mining and pattern matching techniques for such an application? How useful is RSS metadata in this context? These findings will be of considerable pertinence both for future services which may use RSS Feeds, and for future research and development in the area of adaptive personalisation using RSS.
This paper looks at the current situation with respect to RSS and then reports upon the findings of the ticTOCs and Gold Dust projects. We will look at the lessons learnt from developing the ticTOCs service, and also report on two iterations of the Gold Dust development and use cycles. We will deliver an appraisal of the effectiveness of the raft of techniques being employed by Gold Dust. How effective are current data mining and pattern matching techniques for such an application? How useful is RSS metadata in this context? These findings will be of considerable pertinence both for future services which may use RSS Feeds, and for future research and development in the area of adaptive personalisation using RSS.

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Published by: lisajrogers on Jun 11, 2009
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TRANSFORMING CURRENT AWARENESS THROUGH RSS:How two projects (ticTOCs and Gold Dust) are using RSS to improve theinformation landscape for the 21st century researcher
by Lisa J Rogers†, Simon Hodson‡ and Roddy MacLeod†
† Heriot Watt University, ‡ University of Hull
ABSTRACT
This paper looks at the current situation with respect to RSS and then reports uponthe findings of the ticTOCs and Gold Dust projects. We will look at the lessonslearnt from developing the ticTOCs service, and also report on two iterations of theGold Dust development and use cycles. We will deliver an appraisal of theeffectiveness of the raft of techniques being employed by Gold Dust. How effectiveare current data mining and pattern matching techniques for such an application?How useful is RSS metadata in this context? These findings will be of considerablepertinence both for future services which may use RSS Feeds, and for futureresearch and development in the area of adaptive personalisation using RSS.
FEEDS, INFORMATION OVERLOAD AND RSS ADOPTION
Really Simple Syndication (RSS) has emerged as an extremely useful mechanismthrough which researchers, practitioners and educators can obtain currentawareness information and be alerted to the existence of new content. RSS is aXML format that allows content providers to easily share information on theinternet
1
. Users can subscribe to RSS Feeds using a feed reader and are alerted tonew items in the feeds to which they have subscribed each time they view theirfeed reader. Typically, an RSS Feed contains a title, together with either a shortsummary of the content or the full text, and a link back to the original site
2
.However RSS can also be extended
3
through the use of modules to provide moredescriptive metadata such as Dublin Core
4
and PRISM
5
. Many publishers of JournalTables of Contents are already taking advantage of this, allowing them to includemetadata in their RSS feeds such as authors, ISSN, volume, issue and pagenumbers along with article titles and abstracts.There are many types of RSS feeds. Typically, news and blog updates are the mostcommon use of RSS. Hammond
et al 
3
 
describe some of the feeds that sciencepublishers are starting to provide, including other content aside from Journal Tablesof Contents, such as citation alerts, news, jobs, product releases, press releases,reviews and events. Through the work on the Gold Dust project
6
a number of feedswere identified that may be of interest to engineering academics and researchers,and these can be placed in the following categories: journal tables of contents(TOCs), calls for papers, forthcoming conference and events announcements,funding opportunities, new theses and dissertations, new book announcements,subject related news, new items in institutional repositories, professional society
1
 
Moffat M (2003) “RSS - A Primer for Publishers & Content Providers” http://www.techxtra.ac.uk/rss_primer/
2
 
Cooke CA (2006) “Current Awareness in the New Millennium”,
Medical Reference Services Quarterly 
,25:1, pp 59 —69
3
 
Hammond T, Hannay T, Lund B (2004) “The Role of RSS in Science Publishing: Syndication andAnnotation on the Web’ 
D-Lib Magazine
10:12
4
 
RSS 1.0 Modules : Dublin Core http://web.resource.org/rss/1.0/modules/dc/ 
5
6
 
 
news, patents, component announcements, suppliers, standards and new teachingand learning resources.
 
Yet a recent White Paper
7
from Forrester Research noted that RSS adoption byusers within the Internet population was only 11%. Not only that, but the reportshowed that relatively few non-users had any interest in using feeds. In addition,for those who do use and subscribe to RSS feeds, it is only too easy to becomeswamped by the resulting information overload. Although RSS use has grown overthe last few years (An OCLC Report
8
in 2005 suggested only 5% of informationusers used RSS based upon a survey of over 3000 respondents) there is still somelack of willingness on the part of researchers in its take up. In 2005 a White Paper
9 
from Yahoo suggested that although only a small percentage of users know theyare using RSS, 27% use it unknowingly via personalised home page services suchas MyYahoo or iGoogle through the syndication of news headlines, etc. In 2007Hardesty and Sugarman conducted a survey
of Academic Librarians about themethods they used to keep up to date with professional literature. Out of the 707respondents 15% used RSS Feeds. Only 23% of those surveyed said thatinformation overload did not limit their ability to keep up to date, with theremainder commenting that information overload did limit their ability to keep upto date to a lesser or greater extent.What can information professionals do to make sure that the opportunities affordedby RSS are not wasted? Should they concentrate on teaching researchers aboutthe benefits of RSS in the hope that uptake will subsequently increase, or shouldthey work with, and regard, RSS as a component of an invisible infrastructurethrough which to develop simple user-facing services? The two projects describedbelow are focussed on the latter.
PROJECTS
ticTOCs
and Gold Dust are two large-scale consortium JISC-funded projects whichare based around RSS and which have implications for the international informationcommunity. ticTOCs has developed a freely available journal current awarenessservice which aggregates tables of contents RSS feeds for over 12,000 journalsfrom more than 430 publishers. Gold Dust is exploring ways in which thedevelopment of pervasively generated Personal Interest Profiles (PIPs) fromticTOCs usage data may be used to pan the current information flood of RSS feedsfor items of significance to individual researchers - the eponymous ‘gold dust’.Whilst ticTOCs responds to a very clearly defined use-case: the need of researchersto keep up to date with current journal tables of contents, Gold Dust is in contrastvery much a research project, yet the projects are connected, as Gold Dust is usingticTOCs usage logs in order to produce PIPs.
7
 
Katz JM, Spivey Overby C, Owyang JK, Cummings T, Murphy E (2008) “What's Holding RSS Back?Consumers Still Don't Understand This Really Simple Technology
Forrester Research
 
8
 
De Rosa C et al. (2005). “Perceptions of libraries and information resources: A report to the OCLCmembership”. Dublin, OH: OCLC Online Computer Library Center Inc.
 
9
 
10
 
Hardesty S, Sugarman T (2007). “Academic Librarians, Professional Literature, and New Technologies:A Survey” 
The Journal of Academic Librarianship
Vol 33 No 2, pp. 196-205.
11
 
ticTOCS Journal Tables of Contents Service http://www.tictocs.ac.uk
 
TICTOCS PROJECT
ticTOCs has worked with multiple publishers to aggregate, normalise and present journal TOCs within an easy to use interface which facilitates the discovery, displayand reuse of TOC content in a personalisable web based environment. ticTOCs hasalso developed advocacy materials on journal TOC RSS standardisation, and hascreated APIs which enable journal TOC RSS feeds to be embedded in otherinformation services.ticTOCs was developed in mind of the low take up of RSS feeds, and allows users toeasily consume journal TOC RSS feeds from multiple publishers, without having tohave knowledge of RSS or have access to a feed reader. However, ticTOCs alsocaters to the needs of the more technically minded audience of users who wouldwant to use a feed reader and manage their journal TOC RSS feeds alongside otherfeeds. These users are able to use ticTOCs to find feeds for journals from manydifferent publishers and export them, individually or via OPML, into their own feedreaders. This saves the effort of visiting each publisher’s website and individuallysubscribing to feeds. Wusteman
provides guidance on OPML
, commenting that “OPML is used to exchange subscription lists between programs that read RSS files,such as feed readers and aggregators”. Figure 1 shows the features incorporatedinto ticTOCs.
Figure 1 Screenshot of ticTOCs Website
Recommendations for Publishers of TOC RSS Feeds
An outcome of the ticTOCs project was “Recommendations on RSS Feeds forScholarly Publishers” to address the huge variation in the provision of RSS Feeds.Hammond
et al 
3
summarises the use of the various formats of RSS together withthe use (or non use) of additional metadata. ticTOCs can confirm this by providinga snapshot of publishers’ use of the various formats (see Table 1). The Royal
12
 
Wusteman J (2004). “RSS: The Latest Feed” 
Library Hi Tech
Vol 22 No 4, pp 304-413
13
 
OPML Outline Processor Markup Languagehttp://www.opml.org/ 

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