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3D-mapping optimization of embodied energy of transportation

3D-mapping optimization of embodied energy of transportation

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Published by blanche_chocolate
To increase awareness of vehicle users about the amount of pollution their actions generate the authors propose 'visualizing' the quantities of emission as areas that are large enough to absorb that amount.
To increase awareness of vehicle users about the amount of pollution their actions generate the authors propose 'visualizing' the quantities of emission as areas that are large enough to absorb that amount.

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Published by: blanche_chocolate on Jun 12, 2009
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Resources, Conservation and Recycling 51 (2007) 435–453
3D-mapping optimization of embodiedenergy of transportation
Joshua M. Pearce
a
,
, Sara J. Johnson
a
, Gabriel B. Grant
b
a
Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Physics Department,Clarion, PA 16214, United States
b
Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States
Received 27 August 2006; received in revised form 20 October 2006; accepted 25 October 2006Available online 28 November 2006
Abstract
The recent development of Google Earth, an information service that provides imagery and three-dimensionaldatadepictingtheentireEarth,providesanopportunitytouseanewmethodofnavigatinginformation to save energy in the real world. Google Earth uses Keyhole Markup Language (KML)for modeling and storing geographic features and information for display in the Google Earth Client.This paper will analyze the potential of this novel and free geographic mapping service to reduceembodied energy of transportation in two ways. First, at the consumer level, Google Earth will bestudied to map the automobile route that uses the least fuel and maintains vehicle velocities at theirindividual maximum fuel efficiency. The same analysis for single destination trips could be used tooptimize fleet vehicle routes such as garbage or recycling collection trucks. The secondary benefit of ecological education will also be explored. Fuel used could be converted into monetary units basedon the current price of gas, pollution/greenhouse gas emissions, or ecological footprints to improvedriving habits. Secondly, KML overlays will be analyzed for use of determining: (i) raw materialand products availability as a function of location, and (ii) modes of transportation as a functionof emissions. These overlays would enable manufacturers access to an easily navigable method tooptimize the life cycle of their products by minimizing embodied energy of transportation. The mostefficient transportation methods and travel routes could be calculated. This same tool would be usefulfor architects to obtain Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design rating points for the greendesign of buildings. Overall, the analysis completed finds that the flexibility and visual display of 
Corresponding author at: 106 Peirce Science Center, Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Clarion, PA 16214-1232, United States. Tel.: +1 814 393 2713; fax: +1 814 393 1630.
 E-mail address:
jpearce@clarion.edu(J.M. Pearce).0921-3449/$ – see front matter © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2006.10.010
 
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J.M. Pearce et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 51 (2007) 435–453
quantitativeinformationmadeavailablebyGoogleEarthcouldhaveasignificantimpactatconservingfuel resources by reducing the embodied energy of transportation on a global scale.© 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:
Ecological education; Embodied energy; Fuel conservation; Greenhouse gas emissions; LEED; Map-ping; Route optimization; Transportation energy; Transportation
1. Introduction
Over 80% of our global energy needs are met by the combustion of fossil fuels (RistinenandKraushaar,1999)andbyfarthemostimportanttypeofenergysourceforthefunctioningofourglobaleconomyispetroleum(Yergin,1992).Duringthepast40years,thenumberof  newlyfoundoilreserveshasbeenslowlydiminishing(Bentley,2002).Someenergyanalysts warnthatglobally,societyisapproaching“peakoil”,wherethemaximumlong-termrateof extraction and depletion of conventional petroleum is reached (although the exact time of peakoilishotlydebated).Therearestillbillionsofbarrelsofoilleftunderground,andastheprice of oil climbs, when supply cannot meet demand, other vast sources of petroleum willbecome economically exploitable (e.g. Alberta has about 178 billion barrels of proven oilreserves in oil sands (National Energy Board, 2005)). Unfortunately, this does not present a solution, because the emissions from burning these fuels would represent an unacceptablerisk to the vitality of the earth because of global climate destabilization and thermal forcing(Hansen et al., 2000; Hoffert et al., 2002; Rose, 1979; Thomas et al., 2004).It is now clear that there needs to be more attention paid to how the fossil fuels are being used, particularlyfor transportation and more rapid adoption of methods to reduce fossil fuel combustion.The recent development of Google Earth, a geographical information service that pro-vides satellite imagery and three-dimensional (3D) data depicting the entire planet, createsan opportunity to reduce energy consumption for transportation. This paper will explorethe viability of this novel and free geographic mapping service to reduce embodied energyof transportation. The embodied energy of transportation refers to the transportation com-ponent of the embodied energy, where embodied energy is the quantity of energy requiredto manufacture and supply to the point of use of a product, material or service. At the con-sumerlevel,GoogleEarthcouldbeusedtomaptheautomobileroutethatusestheleastfuelbetweentwolocations.Itcanalsobeusedtooptimizefleetvehicleroutesintermsofenergyandemissionsforvehiclessuchasmailcarriers,garbageorrecyclingcollectiontrucks.Thisinformationfortransportationenergyoptimizationwillhelpnotonlyconservefuel,butalsocan incorporate ecological education features geared toward changing behaviors in vehicleusers. Additionally, overlays in Google Earth could be developed first nationally and thenon a planet-wide basis of: (i) raw material and product availability as a function of locationand (ii) modes of transportation as a function of emissions. These overlays would enablemanufacturers to minimize the life cycle energy costs of their finished products by accessto an easily navigable method to determine embodied energy of transportation for a givenproduct or raw material. This same information could be utilized to develop symbiosis inindustrial ecologies. Finally, this information would also be useful for architects trying toreduce the embodied energy in their designs of green buildings.
 
 J.M. Pearce et al. / Resources, Conservation and Recycling 51 (2007) 435–453
437
2. Background
Physical energy use and resultant emissions from combustion of fossil fuels is steadilybecoming of greater importance to decision makers at both macro and micro levels. Thisis largely driven by the consensus among the 2004 Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange (IPCC) and the 1993 World Energy Council’s Global Energy Scenarios to 2050,that if current trends continue in climate destabilization, our Earth will reach a point of noreturn (Hoffert et al., 2002).Global climate destabilization is primarily due to the combus- tion of fossil fuels for energy and the resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (IPCC,1995; IPCC, 2001).Global warming is already occurring, and if combustion of fossil fuelscontinues,temperaturesareprojectedtorise1.4–5.8
Cinthenext100years(Penner,2004;Stocker, 2004).A rise in temperatures could lead to the melting of glaciated ice sheets, rais-ing the sea level up to 7m, and flooding many important coastal cities (Gregory et al., 2004;Schiermeier, 2004).Diseases such as cholera, malaria, and dengue fever show correlationsto specific climate patterns that would be aggravated by increases in global average tem-peratures (Koelle et al., 2005; Kovats et al., 1999).Summer heatwaves will also increase (Scharetal.,2004).Anincreasedtemperaturewillalsoaffectmanyplantsandanimals.Itis projected that migration routes will change (Krajick, 2004),the pH levels in the oceans will drop (Caldeira and Wickett, 2003),and extinction rates will increase (Thomas et al., 2004). Studieshavealsoshownthatincreasedcarbondioxide(CO
2
)willeventuallyslowdownthenitrogen fixation rates of plants (Hungate et al., 2004).Despite these consequences, CO
2
emissions from the combustion of fossil fuel have consistently been increasing. In the U.S.in2004,CO
2
emissionsfromtheburningoffossilfuelsincreased1.5%(U.S.EPA,2006).In 2004,thelargestsourceofCO
2
emissions(2438Tg(10
6
metrictonnes)or43%)camefromburning petroleum, the majority of which was used for transportation (U.S. EPA, 2006).The consequences of our continued and escalating fossil fuel combustion for transportationare clearly unacceptable.Although all aspects of industrialized society currently depend on enormous influxesof fossil fuel-based energy, transportation is now taking a dominant position. As can beseen inTable 1,the relative importance of transportation-caused emissions over the other main end-use sectors (industrial, residential, commercial) has increased from 1990, whenthe baseline emissions standards were defined for the Kyoto Protocol. Now, transportationmakes up the largest percentage, representing one third of all anthropogenic emissions. In
Table 1CO
2
emissions from combustion of fossil fuel by end-use sector for 1990 and 2004 (Tg [10
6
metric tonnes] CO
2
)(U.S. EPA, 2006)End-use sector 1990 1990 (%) 2004 2004 (%)Transportation 1464.4 31 1860.2 33Industrial 1528.3 33 1595.0 28Residential 922.8 20 1166.8 21Commercial 753.1 16 983.1 18Total 4668.6 100 5605.2 100

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