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Recovered Memories from the Child Abuse Wiki

Recovered Memories from the Child Abuse Wiki

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Recovered memories have been defined as the phenomenon of partially or fully losing parts of memories of traumatic events, and then later recovering part or all of the memories into conscious awareness. They have also been defined as the recollections of memories that are believed to have been unavailable for a certain period of time. There is very strong scientific evidence that recovered memories exist. This has been shown in many scientific studies. The content of recovered memories have fairly high corroboration rates.
Recovered memories have been defined as the phenomenon of partially or fully losing parts of memories of traumatic events, and then later recovering part or all of the memories into conscious awareness. They have also been defined as the recollections of memories that are believed to have been unavailable for a certain period of time. There is very strong scientific evidence that recovered memories exist. This has been shown in many scientific studies. The content of recovered memories have fairly high corroboration rates.

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Recovered Memories From Child Abuse Wikihttp://childabusewiki.org/index.php?title=Recovered_Memoriescopied with permissionRecovered memories have been defined as the phenomenon of partially or fullylosing parts of memories of traumatic events, and then later recovering part orall of the memories into conscious awareness. They have also been defined as therecollections of memories that are believed to have been unavailable for a certainperiod of time[1]. There is very strong scientific evidence that recoveredmemories exist.[2] This has been shown in many scientific studies. The content ofrecovered memories have fairly high corroboration rates.Contents* 1 Scientific evidence* 2 Corroboration rates* 3 References* 4 Bibliography* 5 External LinksScientific evidenceThere are many studies that have proven that the recovered memories of traumaticevents exist. Brown, Scheflin and Hammond found 43 studies that showed recoveredmemories for traumatic events[3]. The Recovered Memory Project has collected 101corroborated cases of recovered memories[4]. Hopper's research shows that amnesiafor childhood sexual abuse is "beyond dispute." He states that "at least 10% ofpeople sexually abused in childhood will have periods of complete amnesia fortheir abuse, followed by experiences of delayed recall" [5] In one study of womenwith previously documented histories of sexual abuse, 38% of the women did notremember the abuse that had happened 17 years before.[6] Most recovered memorieseither precede therapy or the use of memory recovery techniques[7]. One studiedshowed that five out of 19 women with histories of familial sexual abuse eitherforgot specific details or had "blank periods" for these memories[8]. Anotherstudy showed that "40% reported a period of forgetting some or all of theabuse"[9]. Herman and Harvey's study showed that 16% of abuse survivors had"complete amnesia followed by delayed recall"[10]. Corwin's individual case studyprovides evidence of the existence of recovered memories on videotape[11].Other researchers state:Research has shown that traumatized individuals respond by using a variety ofpsychological mechanisms. One of the most common means of dealing with the pain isto try and push it out of awareness. Some label the phenomenon of the processwhereby the mind avoids conscious acknowledgment of traumatic experiences asdissociative amnesia. Others use terms such as repression, dissociative state,traumatic amnesia, psychogenic shock, or motivated forgetting. Semantics aside,there is near-universal scientific acceptance of the fact that the mind is capableof avoiding conscious recall of traumatic experiences.[12]A body of empirical evidence indicates that it is common for abused children toreach adulthood without conscious awareness of the trauma[13]Corroboration ratesMany studies show high corroboration rates for recovered memories of traumaticevents. These rates vary from 50 - 75%[14], 64%[13], 77%[15], 50%[16], 75%[17]68%[18] 47%[9], and 70% [19]. One study showed amnesia in 12 murderers, with
 
"objective evidence of severe abuse...obtained in 11 cases"[20]. There are alsoadditional studies showing the corroboration of recoveredmemories[21][22][23][24].References1. ^ What about Recovered Memories? Jennifer J. Freyd, University of Oregonhttp://dynamic.uoregon.edu/~jjf/whatabout.html2. ^ Research discussing corroboration and accuracy of recovered memories: AnAnnotated Bibliography by Lynn Crookhttp://dynamic.uoregon.edu/~jjf/suggestedrefs.html3. ^ Brown, Scheflin, & Whitfield. (1999). Recovered Memories: The CurrentWeight of the Evidence in Science and in the Courts Journal of Psychiatry & Law,27, 5-156. "Brown, Scheflin and Hammond reviewed 43 studies relevant to thesubject of traumatic memory and found that every study that examined the questionof dissociative amnesia in traumatized populations demonstrated that a substantialminority partially or completely forget the traumatic event experienced, and laterrecover memories of the event. By 1999, over 68 studies had been published thatdocument dissociative amnesia after childhood sexual abuse. In fact, no study thathas looked for evidence of traumatic or dissociative amnesia after child sexualabuse has failed to find it." http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/tm/prev.html4. ^ The Recovered Memory Projecthttp://www.brown.edu/Departments/Taubman_Center/Recovmem/index.html5. ^ Recovered Memories of Sexual Abuse - Scientific Research & ScholarlyResources by Jim Hopper “Amnesia for childhood sexual abuse is a condition. Theexistence of this condition is beyond dispute. Repression is merely oneexplanation - often a confusing and misleading one - for what causes the conditionof amnesia. At least 10% of people sexually abused in childhood will have periodsof complete amnesia for their abuse, followed by experiences of delayed recall.”http://www.jimhopper.com/memory/6. ^ Williams LM (1994). Recall of childhood trauma: a prospective study ofwomen’s memories of child sexual abuse. J Consult Clin Psychol 62: 1167–76. PMID7860814. "One hundred twenty-nine women with previously documented histories ofsexual victimization in childhood were interviewed and asked detailed questionsabout their abuse histories to answer the question “Do people actually forgettraumatic events such as child sexual abuse, and if so, how common is suchforgetting?” A large proportion of the women (38%) did not recall the abuse thathad been reported 17 years earlier." http://www.hss.caltech.edu/courses/2004-05/winter/psy130/Debate2Williams1.pdf7. ^ Andrews, B., Brewin, C., Ochera, J., Morton, J., Bekerian, D., Davies, G.,and Mollon, P. (1999). Characteristics, context and consequences of memoryrecovery among adults in therapy. Brit J Psychiatry 175:141-146. "Of a total of690 clients, therapists reported that 65% recalled child sexual abuse and 35%recalled other traumas, 32% started recovering memories before entering therapy.According to therapists’ accounts, among the 236 detailed client cases, very fewappeared improbable and corroboration was reported in 41%. Most (78%) of theclients’ initial recovered memories either preceded therapy or preceded the use ofmemory recovery techniques used by the respondents. Techniques seemed to be usedmore to help the clients to elaborate the memories than to facilitate theirinitial recovery. Clients with whom techniques had been used before the firstreported memory recovery were no less likely to have found corroborating evidencethan clients with whom no techniques had been used before memory recovery."8. ^ Bagley, C. (1995). The prevalence and mental health sequels of childsexual abuse in community sample of women aged 18 to 27. Child sexual abuse andmental health in adolescents and adults. Aldershot: Avebury. "Study of women 18-24years who had been removed from home 10 years previously by social services due tointrafamilial sexual abuse. Of the 19 women for whom there was evidence of serioussexual abuse, 14 remembered events corresponding to their records. Two remembered
 
that abuse had taken place but could recall no specific details, and three had nomemory. Two of the last three described long blank periods for the memory ofchildhood corresponding to the age when abuse had taken place.9. ^ a b Feldman-Summers, S., & Pope, K. S. (1994). The experience offorgetting childhood abuse: A national survey of psychologists. Journal ofConsulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 636-639. "A national sample ofpsychologists were asked whether they had been abused as children and, if so,whether they had ever forgotten some or all of the abuse. Almost a quarter of thesample (23.9%) reported childhood abuse, and of those, approximately 40% reporteda period of forgetting some or all of the abuse....Of those abused, 40% did notremember at some time. 47% had corroboration. 56% said psychotherapy aided inrecall. Differences between those who first recalled abuse in therapy and thosewho recalled it elsewhere were not significant.10. ^ Herman, J. L., & Harvey, M. R. (1997). Adult memories of childhood trauma:A naturalistic clinical study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10, 557-571. "Roughlyhalf (53%) said they had never forgotten the traumatic events. Two smaller groupsdescribed a mixture of continuous and delayed recall (17%) or a period of completeamnesia followed by delayed recall (16%). Patients with and without delayed recalldid not differ significantly in the proportions reporting corroboration of theirmemories from other sources."11. ^ Corwin, D.; Olafson E. (1997). Videotaped Discovery of a ReportedlyUnrecallable Memory of Child Sexual Abuse:Comparison with a Childhood InterviewVideotaped 11 Years Before Child Maltreatment 2 (2): 91–112.doi:10.1177/1077559597002002001http://cmx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/2/2/9112. ^ The Leadership Council - Trauma and Memoryhttp://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/tm/tm.html13. ^ a b “True” and “False” Child Sexual Abuse Memories and Casey’sPhenomenological View of Remembering Joanne M. Hall, Lori L. Kondora - AmericanBehavioral Scientist, Vol. 48, No. 10, 1339-1359 (2005) DOI:10.1177/0002764205277012 "Research shows that 64% of adult women childhood sexualabuse survivors had some degree of amnesia regarding the trauma; but in themajority of cases, corroboration was available to verify that abuse had occurred(Herman & Schatzow, 1987). Of 129 women with recorded histories of childhoodsexual abuse, 38% did not recall the abuse that had been clearly verified anddocumented decades earlier. This lack of recall was especially likely among thoseabused at younger ages and among those whose perpetrators were known by them atthe time of the abuse (L.Williams, 1994). In fact, a body of empirical evidenceindicates that it is common for abused children to reach adulthood withoutconscious awareness of the trauma (Briere, 1992; Herman, 1992; Schetky, 1990; vander Kolk et al., 1996)."http://abs.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/48/10/1339?ijkey=ciZjJlFifgYIY&keytype=ref&siteid=spabs14. ^ Corroboration of Child Abuse Memories "Studies vary in frequency. Between31 and 64 percent of abuse survivors in six major studies reported that theyforgot “some of the abuse.” Numbers reporting severe amnesia ranged from under 12%to 59%....Studies report 50-75% of abuse survivors corroborating the facts oftheir abuse through an outside source."http://mentalhealth.about.com/cs/abuse/a/cooroborate.htm15. ^ van der Kolk, BA & R Fisler (1995), “Dissociation and the fragmentarynature of traumatic memories: Overview and exploratory study”, J Traumatic Stress8: 505–25 "a systematic exploratory study of 46 subjects with PTSD which indicatesthat traumatic memories are retrieved, at least initially, in the form ofdissociated mental imprints of sensory and affective elements of the traumaticexperience: as visual, olfactory, affective, auditory and kinesthetic experiences.Over time, subjects reported the gradual emergence of a personal narrative thatsome believe can be properly referred to as “explicit memory”....Of the 35subjects with childhood trauma, 15 (43%) had suffered significant, or total

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