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Spring 2009 Mgt502 3 Vuabid

Spring 2009 Mgt502 3 Vuabid

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Instructions for assignmentOrganizational Behavior (Mgt 502)Semester: Spring 2009
 All the students of MGT502 of Semester Spring 2009 are informed that Assignment of MGT502 has been uploaded on VULMS Assignment page. Log onto your VULMS to view the assignment.
To do this assignment, you are required to read the article titled“Leadership- the art of empowering others” and then answer below mentioned questions.
Use only MICRO SOFT EXCELFILE(.xls file format attached) for solution.
Do not submit your assignment as a PDF, image, HTML,Notepad, WordPad or MS-Word file; it will be marked asZERO.
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Once you uploaded the assignment on VULMS, it will not be replaced inany caseafter due date. 
@TheAcademyofManagementEXECUTIVE,989,Vol./iI,No.1, pp.17-24
"Oneoughtto be both fearedandoved,butas tis difficultor the two to gotogether,tis muchsafer obe fearedthan oved...for ove isheldbyachainof obligationwhich,menbeingselfish,is broken whenever t servestheirpurpose;but fear ismaintainedbyadreadofpunishmentwhich never fails."
ThePrince,Niccolo Machiavelli
nhis handbook, The Prince, Machiavelliassureshis
readerssomebeing aspiring eaders,nodoubt
thatonly by carefully amassing powerandbuildinga fearsomerespect couldonebecome a great leader. Whiletheshad-owycourt lifeof16th-century Italydemanded suchtreacherytoensure one's power,itseemshardto imagine Machiavel-li's advice today as anything but a historical curiosity. Yet,interestingly,much of the management literaturehas focusedonthestrategiesandtacticsthatmanagerscanusetoincrease their own power and influence.' As such, a Machia-vellian quality often pervades the literature, encouragingmanagers to ensure that their power base is strong andgrowing. Atthesametime asmall but increasing number ofmanagement theorists have begun to explore the idea thatorganizationaleffectiveness alsodependsonthesharingofpower
that thedistributionofpowerismoreimportantthanthehoardingofpower.2Whilethe idea of making others feel more powerfulcontradictsthestereotypeoftheall-powerful executive,research suggests that the traditional ways of explainingaleader's influence may notbeentirely correct. Forexample,recent leadershipstudies argue that the practiceof empower-ing-orinstillingasenseofpower
isat therootoforganizational effectiveness, especially during times oftran-sitionandtransformation.3naddition,studiesofpowerandcontrol within organizations indicate that the more produc-tiveforms oforganizational powerincreasewithsuperiors'sharingofpowerandresponsibilitywithsubordinates.4Andwhile thereisan increasing awareness ofthisneed for moreempowering leadership,wehaveonly recently startedo seedocumentation abouttheactual practices thatleadersemploytoeffectivelybuild asenseofpower among organi-zational members aswellasthe contexts most suitedforempowerment practices.5Inthis article,I will explorethese practicesfurtherbydrawinguponarecent studyofsenior executiveswhoprovedthemselveshighly effectiveleaders.Theywereselected by apanel of professorsat the HarvardBusinessSchooland managementconsultantswhowere wellac-quaintedwiththem andtheir companies.The studyincludedeightchiefexecutiveofficersandexecutivevice-presidentsofFortune500companiesand successful entrepreneurialfirms,representingindustriesas diverseas telecommunica-tions,office automation,retail banking,beverages, pack-agedfoods,andmanagementconsulting.Ineach case,theseindividualswereresponsiblefor eitherthecreation of highlysuccessful companiesorforperformingwhatwere de-scribedas remarkableturnarounds.During mystudy ofthese executives,Iconductedextensiveinterviews,observedthem onthejob,readcompanyandotherdocuments,and talkedwith theircolleaguesandsubordinates.Whilethestudyfocused onthebroaderissue of leadershipstyles,intensiveinterviewswiththese executivesand their subordi-nates revealedthatmanywerecharacterizedasempoweringleaders.Theiractionswereperceived asbuilding confidenceand restoringa senseof personalpowerandself-efficacyduringdifficult organizationaltransitions.From this study,Iidentified certain organizationalcontextsofpowerlessnessand managementpracticesderivedtoremedythem.In thisarticle I willalso illustrateseveralof thesepracticesthrougha seriesof vignettes.Whilethe readermayrecognizesomeof thebasicideasbehind thesepractices(such asproviding greateropportunitiesfor initiative),it isoften thecreativemannerin whichtheleaderdeploystheparticularpracticethatdistinguishesthem.The readerwilldiscoverhowthey havebeen carefullytailoredtofit thecontextat hand.Imight add,however,thatthese practicesrepresentjusta fewof thebroadrepertoireof actionsthatleaderscan taketomake an empoweringdifferencein theirorganizations.
A Word About Empowerment
We can think of empowerment as the act of strength-ening an individual's beliefsinhis or her sense of effective-ness. In essence, then, empowerment is not simply a set ofexternal actions; it is a process of changing the internalbeliefs of people.6 We know from psychology that individu-als believe themselves powerful when they feel they canadequately cope with environmental demands
that is,situations, events, and people they confront. They feel pow-erless when they are unable to cope with these demands.Any management practice that increases an individual'ssense of self-determination will tend to make that individualfeel more powerful. The theory behind these ideas can betraced to the work of Alfred Bandura,who conceptualizedthe notion of self-efficacy beliefs and their role in an individ-ual's sense of personal powerinthe world.7From his research in psychology, Bandura dentifiedfour meansofproviding empoweringinformation to others:(1) through positive emotional support during experiencesassociatedwithstress and anxiety, (2) through words ofencouragementandpositive persuasion, (3) by observingothers' effectiveness-in otherwords, having models ofsuccess with whompeople identified
and (4) by actuallyexperiencing the mastering of a task with success (the mosteffective source). Each of these sources of empowermentwas used by the study executives and will be identified in thepractice examples, as will other sources identified by organi-zational researchers.SeveralEmpowering ManagementPracticesBefore describingthe actualpractices,it isimportantto firstdrawattention to anunderlyingattitude of thestudyparticipants.Theseempoweringleaders shared astrongunderlyingbeliefintheir subordinates'abilities. It is essen-tiallytheTheoryYargument;8ifyoubelieveinpeople'sabilities, theywill come tobelieveinthem. All the executivesin thestudybelieved that their subordinateswerecapableofmanaging their currentsituations.Theydid notemploywholesale firingsas a meansoftransformingtheirorganiza-tions. Rather, theyretained themajorityoftheirstaffandmoved those whocould notperform upto standardtopositionswheretheycould. The essential lesson is thatanassessmentof staff skillssimperativebeforeembarkingonaprogramofempowerment.This basicbeliefinemployees'abilities underliesthefollowing examplesofmanagementpractices designedtoempower.Wewillbeginwith thepracticeofproviding positiveemotionalsupport.1. The Squirt-gun Shootouts: Providinga PositiveEmotional Atmosphere.An empoweringpractice thatemerged from the study wasthat of providing positive emo-tional support,especially throughplay or drama. For exam-ple, every fewmonths, several executiveswould stage dra-matic "up sessions"to sustainthe motivationand excitementof their staff.They wouldhost anafternoon-long,or a one- ortwo-dayevent devoted solelyto confidence building. Theevent would open with an upliftingspeech about the future,followed bya special, inspirationalpeaker. At these eventsthere would often be filmsmeant to build excitement orconfidence
for example,a film depictinga mountainclimber ascending a difficultpeak. The message being con-veyed is that this person is findingsatisfactionn the work heorshe doesat anextraordinary evel of competence.Therewould also be rewardsfor exceptionalachievements.Thesesessions acted as ceremoniesto enhance the personal statusandidentityof employees andrevive the commonfeelingsthat binded themtogether.9An element ofplayappears to be especially liberatinginsituationsof great stressanddemoralization.Inthe study'sexamples, playallowed for the venting offrustrations ndinturnpermittedindividualstoregainasense of controlbysteppingback from theirpressuresforamoment.As Ban-durasuggests,thepositiveemotionalsupport providedbysomethinglikeplayalleviates, to some extent,concernsaboutpersonalefficacy.10Forexample,one of thesubjectsofthestudy,BillJackson, was appointedthe head of a troubleddivision.Demand hadoutstripped thedivision's ability to maintainadequate inventories,andproductqualityhad slipped. Jack-son'spredecessorswere authoritarianmanagers, and subor-dinates were demoralizedaswell asparanoidaboutkeepingtheirjobs.Asone told me, "Younever knew who wouldbeshot next."Jacksonelt that he had to break the tensionin away that wouldallowhisstaffto regaintheir sense of controlandpower.He wanted to remove the stiffnessandparanoiaand turnwhat subordinates perceivedas an impossible taskinto somethingmorefunand manageable.So,Iwastold,at the end of his first staffmeeting,Jacksonquietlypulledoutasquirt-gunand blasted one of hismanagerswith water. Atfirst, there was a moment ofstunned silence,and thensuddenlythe room was floodedwithlaughter.Heremarkedwith a smile, "You gotta havefunin thisbusiness. It's notworthhaving yourstomachinulcers."Thisbegana monthofsquirt-gunfightsbetweenJacksonand hismanagers.Theend result?Asenior manager'scommentisrepresentative: "He wantedpeople tofeelcomfortable,tofeelincontrol.He usedwatergunsto dothat. It was agame.It took the stiffness out ofthebusiness,allowedpeopletoplayin a safe environment
asthebosssays,to havefun."'Thisplayrestoredrapportand morale.ButJacksonalsoknewwhento stop.Aseniormanagertoldme,"We haven't usedwatergunsinnine months.It has served its purpose....Thewaterfights werelikebeingacceptedinto aclub.Once itachieved itspurpose,itwould have been overdone."18

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