Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, Vol. 8, No. 4 (2009) 453–469c
Imperial College PressDOI:10.1142/S0219635209002319
Research ReportPRINCIPLES OF CELLULAR-MOLECULARMECHANISMS UNDERLYING NEURON FUNCTIONS
ALEXANDER S. RATUSHNYAK
and TATIANA A. ZAPARA
Design Technological Institute of Digital Techniques SB RAS Novosibirsk, 63009, Russia
Received 27 October 2009Revised 2 December 2009In the present work, it was experimentally shown that a neuron
was capableof responding in a manner similar to habituation, Pavlov’s reﬂex and avoidance of thereinforcements. The locality of plastic property modiﬁcations and molecular morphology,as well as the connection between functional activity and cytoskeleton have been revealed.A hypothesis is formulated that the neuron is a molecular system which may exercisethe control, forecast, recognition, and classiﬁcation. The basic principles of the molecularmechanisms of the responses underlying integrative activity, learning and memory at theneuronal level are discussed.
: Neuron information functions; recognition; classiﬁcation; forecasting; learning.
For the past ten years, vast amount of experimental data have been accumulatedin neurobiological and cell molecular studies. The list of pathways of signal trans-duction of molecules, enzymes and genes taking part in the information processesis enormous. It allows understanding of the main principles of the organization andfunction of molecular information devices — the neurons. However, unequivocalanswers to the main conceptual questions of bioinformatics have remained elusivestill. There is an opinion that such “analytic approach has been exhausted, we haveanother and possibly more diﬃcult problem. We literally sink in data. You canconnect all data in the world, but without the model these data will always beinsuﬃcient” .The main part of current neurobiological investigations is devoted to analysisof the processes taking place in synapses during learning and memorization andexecuted with the use of reduced neuronal systems as models, including those of mollusks [1,2,5,8,10,15,16,18,22,33]. Plasticity is a fundamental property
of the nervous systems. One of the best characterized forms of synaptic plasticityis long-term potentiation (LTP) . Currently, 1124 proteins have been identiﬁed