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Cement Bond Logging Tools

Cement Bond Logging Tools

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Cement Bond Logging Tools
Cement bond tools measure the bond between the casing and the cement placed in the annulusbetween the casing and the wellbore. The measure-ment is made by using acoustic sonic and ultrasonic tools. In the case of sonic tools, the measurementis usually displayed on a cement bond log (CBL)in millivolt units, decibel attenuation, or both.Reduction of the reading in millivolts or increaseof the decibel attenuation is an indication of better-quality bonding of the cement behind the casing to the casing wall. Factors that affect the qualityof the cement bonding are
I
cement job design and execution as wellas effective mud removal
I
compressive strength of the cement in place
I
 temperature and pressure changes applied to the casing after cementing
I
epoxy resin applied to the outer wallof the casing.
SLIM ARRAY SONIC TOOL
The Slim Array Sonic Tool (SSLT) is a digitalsonic tool that provides conventional openholesonic measurements, standard CBL amplitudeand Variable Density* log (VDL), and attenuationmeasurements, which are less affected by boreholeenvironmental conditions. The SSLT can also makea short-spacing (1-ft [0.30-m]) CBL measurementsfor cement evaluation in fast formations. The two transmitters and six receivers of the SSLT sondehave transmitter–receiver spacings of 1, 3, 3.5, 4,4.5, and 5 ft [0.30, 0.91, 1.07, 1.22, 1.37, and 1.52 m] to compute the following:
I
standard 3-ft CBL and 5-ft VDL measurements
I
borehole-compensated (BHC) attenuationfrom the 3.5- and 4.5-ft spacing receivers
I
near-pseudoattenuation from the 3-ftspacing receivers
I
short-spacing attenuation from the 1-ft spacingreceiver for cement bond measurement in fast for-mations that may affect the standard 3-ft spacing.
APPLICATIONS
I
Evaluation of cement quality 
I
Determination of zoneisolation
I
Location of cement top
H
S
LT
 
SC
MTD
S
LT
 
Q
S
LT
SS
LT
 
Memo
r
y
S
lim
C
BL Tool
 
Cement Bond Logging Tools
SLIMXTREME SONICLOGGING TOOL
The SlimXtreme* Sonic LoggingTool (QSLT) provides the samemeasurements as the SSLT of thecement bond amplitude, attenua- tion, and Variable Density displayfor evaluation of the cementbond quality of a cementedcasing in high-pressure andhigh-temperature environments.
CEMENT BOND LOG FROMDIGITAL SONIC LOGGING TOOL
The Digital Sonic Logging Tool(DSLT) uses the Sonic LoggingSonde (SLS) to measure thecement bond amplitude andprovide a Variable Density displayfor evaluation of the cement bondquality of a cemented casingstring. Variable Density or x-ywaveform display of the sonicsignal is presented in conjunctionwith the bond index and amplitudesignal. The DSLT is also used in the open borehole environment forconventional sonic measurementsof BHC (3- to 5-ft) transit time andlong-spacing depth-derived BHC(DDBHC) (9- to 11-ft [2.74 to 3.35-m]) transit time.
CEMENT BOND LOG FROMHOSTILE ENVIRONMENTSONIC LOGGING TOOL
The Hostile Environment SonicLogging Tool (HSLT) provides the same measurements of thecement bond amplitude andVariable Density display for evalu-ation of the cement bond qualityof a cemented casing string as the SSLT in high-pressure andhigh-temperature environments.
SLIM CEMENT MAPPING TOOL
The Slim Cement Mapping Tool(SCMT) is a through-tubingcement evaluation tool combin-able with the PS Platform* produc- tion logging service for a variety ofwell diagnostics. The two sizes are11
1
 ⁄ 
16
in [4.29 cm] for the standard(302 degF [150 degC]) temperaturerating and 2
1
 ⁄ 
16
in [5.24 cm] with a392 degF [200 degC] temperaturerating. The SCMT is suitable forrunning workover operations andin new wells. SCMT operationsprovide a clear advantage inworkover wells because thereis no need to pull tubing above the zone of interest for cementevaluation. The SCMT is capableof running through most tubings to evaluate the casing below. In new wells the SCMT is anexcellent tool for evaluating casing that is 7
5
 ⁄ 
8
in [19.36 cm] or less.The SCMT features a single transmitter, two receivers spaced at3 and 5 ft from the transmitter, and eight segmented receivers 2 ft[0.61 m]from the transmitter. The output of the near (3-ft) receiveris used for CBL and transit-time measurement. The output of the far(5-ft) receiver is used for the VDL measurement. The eight segmentedreceivers generate a radial image of the cement bond variation.
MEMORY SLIMCEMENT BOND LOGGING TOOL
The Memory Slim Cement Bond Logging Tool provides through-tubing3-ft CBL and 5-ft VDL measurements with the same accuracy andquality as surface-readout logs. Because of its slim size, the 11
1
 ⁄ 
16
-in tool can be run into the zone of interest without having to remove the tubing from the well. The tool simultaneously records gamma ray,casing collar location, pressure, temperature, and waveforms in asingle pass, with the waveforms fully digitized downhole. More than40 h of combined tool running time is possible, including 16 h of contin-uous waveform recording time. Depth-recording systems are availablefor both hazardous and nonhazardous environments.The Memory Slim CBL Tool can be run with other Memory PS Platform*production logging tools for complete well and reservoir evaluation inone descent. The tools and sensors can be conveyed in the boreholeby drillpipe, coiled tubing, slickline, or unintelligent tractor. PS Platformsoftware is used to perform onsite data processing or any necessarypostprocessing and prepare the log presentation.
Measurement SpecificationsSSLTQSLTDSLTHSLTSCMT-C and SCMT-HMemory Slim CBL Tool
Output3-ft [0.91-m]
C
BL and attenuation, 3-ft [0.91-m]
C
BLand attenuation,3-ft [0.91-m] amplitude
C
BL3-ft [0.91-m] amplitude
C
BL, 5-ft [1.52-m]3-ft [0.91-m] amplitude
C
BL, 5-ft [1.52-m]3-ft [0.91-m]
C
BL, 5-ft [1.52-m]1-ft [0.30-m] attenuation, 5-ft [1.52-m]1-ft [0.30-m] attenuation, 5-ft [1.52-m]With
S
L
S
-
C
and
S
L
S
-D: 5-ft [1.52-m]Va
r
iable Density logVa
r
iable Density log,Va
r
iable Density log, gamma
r
ay,
CC
L,Va
r
iable Density logVa
r
iable Density logVa
r
iable Density log
c
ement bond va
r
iation mapt
r
aveltime,
c
ement
c
omp
r
essive st
r
engthLogging speed3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]Ve
r
 ti
c
al
r
esolutionNea
r
attenuation: 1 ft [0.30 m]Nea
r
attenuation: 1 ft [0.30 m]
C
BL: 3 ft [0.91 m]
C
BL: 3 ft [0.91 m]
C
BL: 3 ft [0.91 m]
C
BL: 3 ft [0.91 m]
C
BL: 3 ft [0.91 m]
C
BL: 3 ft [0.91 m]VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m]VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m]VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m]VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m]VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m]VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m]
C
ement bond va
r
iation map: 2 ft [0.61 m]Depth of investigation
C
BL:
C
asing and
c
ement inte
r
fa
c
e
C
BL:
C
asing and
c
ement inte
r
fa
c
e
C
BL:
C
asing and
c
ement inte
r
fa
c
e
C
BL:
C
asing and
c
ement inte
r
fa
c
e
C
BL:
C
asing and
c
ement inte
r
fa
c
e
C
BL:
C
asing and
c
ement inte
r
fa
c
eVDL: Depends on bonding and fo
r
mationVDL: Depends on bonding and fo
r
mationVDL: Depends on bonding and fo
r
mationVDL: Depends on bonding and fo
r
mationVDL: Depends on bonding and fo
r
mationVDL: Depends on bonding and fo
r
mationMud type o
r
weight limitationsNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone
C
ombinabilityPa
r
 t of
S
limA
cc
ess
*
systemPa
r
 t of
S
limXt
r
eme system
C
ombinable with most toolsPa
r
 t of Xt
r
eme
*
system,
C
ombinable with P
S
Platfo
r
m system
C
ombinable with Memo
r
y P
S
Platfo
r
m system
c
ombinable with most tools
S
pe
c
ial appli
c
ationsLogging th
r
ough d
r
illpipe,Logging th
r
ough d
r
illpipe,Logging th
r
ough d
r
illpipe,Logging th
r
ough d
r
illpipe, tubing, tubing, and in small
c
asingtubing, and in small
c
asingtubing, and in small
c
asingand in small
c
asingFast fo
r
mationsFast fo
r
mationsFast fo
r
mations
Mechanical SpecificationsSSLTQSLTDSLTHSLTSCMT-C and SCMT-HMemory Slim CBL Tool
Tempe
r
atu
r
e
r
ating302 degF [150 deg
C
]500 degF [260 deg
C
]302 degF [150 deg
C
]500 degF [260 deg
C
]
SC
MT-
C
: 302 degF [150 deg
C
]302 degF [150 deg
C
]
SC
MT-H: 392 degF [200 deg
C
]P
r
essu
r
e
r
ating14,000 psi [97 MPa]30,000 psi [207 MPa]20,000 psi [138 MPa]25,000 psi [172 MPa]15,000 psi [103 MPa]15,000 psi [103 MPa]
C
asing sizemin.3
1
 ⁄ 
2
in [8.89
c
m]4
1
 ⁄ 
2
in [11.43
c
m]5
1
 ⁄ 
2
in [13.97
c
m]5
1
 ⁄ 
2
in [13.97
c
m]
SC
MT-
C
: 2
3
 ⁄ 
8
in [6.03
c
m]2
7
 ⁄ 
8
in [7.30
c
m]
SC
MT-H: 2
7
 ⁄ 
8
in [7.30
c
m]
C
asing sizemax.8
5
 ⁄ 
8
in [21.91
c
m]8
5
 ⁄ 
8
in [21.91
c
m]13
3
 ⁄ 
8
in [33.97
c
m]13
3
 ⁄ 
8
in [33.97
c
m]7
5
 ⁄ 
8
in [19.37
c
m]7
5
 ⁄ 
8
in [19.37
c
m]Outside diamete
r
2.5 in [6.35
c
m]3 in [7.62
c
m]3.625 in [9.21
c
m]3.875 in [9.84
c
m]
SC
MT-
C
: 1.6875in [4.29
c
m]1.6875 in [4.29
c
m]
SC
MT-H: 2.06 in [5.23
c
m]Length23.1 ft [7.04 m]Without inline
c
ent
r
alize
r
: 23 ft [7 m]With
S
L
S
-E: 20.63 ft [6.29 m]25.5 ft [7.77 m]
SC
MT-
C
: 23.45 ft [7.14 m]23.45 ft [7.15 m]With inline
c
ent
r
alize
r
: 29.9 ft [9.11 m]With
S
L
S
-F: 23.81 ft [7.26 m]
SC
MT-H: 28.85 ft [8.79 m]Weight
232 lbm [105 kg]270 lbm [122 kg]With
S
L
S
-E: 313 lbm [142 kg]440 lbm [199 kg]
SC
MT-
C
: 100 lbm [45 kg]100.2 lbm [45.4 kg]With
S
L
S
-F: 353 lbm [160 kg]
SC
MT-H: 162 lbm [73 kg]Tension13,000 lbf [57,830 N]13,000 lbf [57,830 N]29,700 lbf [132,110 N]20,000 lbf [88,960 N]5,900 lbf [26,240 N]5,900 lbf [26,240 N]
C
omp
r
ession4,400 lbf [19,570 N]4,400 lbf [19,570 N]2,870 lbf [12,270 N]6,000 lbf [26,690 N]150 lbf [670 N]150 lbf [670 N]
Inai
r
 
Cement Bond Logging Tools
APPLICATIONS
I
Cement evaluation
I
Casing inspectionCorrosion detection andmonitoringDetection of internaland external damage ordeformationCasing thickness analy-sis for collapse andburst pressurecalculations
USI ULTRASONIC IMAGER TOOL
The USI* UltraSonic Imager tool (USIT) uses a single transducer mount-edon an Ultrasonic Rotating Sub (USRS) on the bottom of the tool. The transmitter emits ultrasonic pulses between 200 and 700 kHz andmeasures the received ultrasonic waveforms reflected from the internaland external casing interfaces. The rate of decay of the waveformsreceived indicates the quality of the cement bond at the cement/casinginterface, and the resonant frequency of the casing provides the casingwall thickness required for pipe inspection. Because the transducer ismounted on the rotating sub, the entire circumference of the casing isscanned. This 360°data coverage enables the evaluation of the qualityof the cement bond as well as the determination of the internal andexternal casing condition. The very high angular and vertical resolutionscan detect channels as narrow as 1.2 in [3.05 cm]. Cement bond, thick-ness, internal and external radii, and self-explanatory mapsare generated in real time at the wellsite.

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