You are here:HomeResourcesSteam Engineering TutorialsSteam Engineering Principles and Heat Transfer Heating with Coils and Jackets
Indirect heating of fluids is covered in this tutorialincluding layouts, control and drainage of coils and jackets, and heat transfer calculations.
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Heating with Coils and Jackets
Vessels can be heated in a number of different ways. This tutorial will deal with indirect heating. In thesesystems, the heat is transferred across a heat transfer surface. Options include:Submerged steam coils - A widely used form of heat transfer involves the installation inside atank of a steam coil immersed in a process fluid.Steam jackets - Steam circulates in the annular space between a jacket and the vessel walls, andheat is transferred through the wall of the vessel.
Submerged steam coils
The use of tank coils is particularly common in marine applications where cargoes of crude oil, edibleoils, tallow and molasses are heated in deep tanks. Many of these liquids are difficult to handle atambient temperatures due to their viscosity. Steam heated coils are used to raise the temperature of these liquids, lowering their viscosity so that they become easier to pump.Tank coils are also extensively used in electroplating and metal treatment. Electroplating involvespassing articles through several process tanks so that metallic coatings can be deposited on to their surfaces. One of the first stages in this process is known as pickling, where materials such as steel andcopper are treated by dipping them in tanks of acid or caustic solution to remove any scale or oxide (e.g.rust) which may have formed.
Steam coil sizing
Having determined the energy required (in Tutorial 2.9), and with knowledge of the steampressure/temperature in the coil, the heat transfer surface may be determined using Equation 2.5.3:Equation 2.5.3The heat transfer area calculated is equivalent to the surface area of the coil, and will enable anappropriate size and layout to be specified.
Determining the 'U' value
To calculate the heat transfer area, a value for the overall heat transfer coefficient, U, must be chosen.This will vary considerably with the thermal and transport properties of both fluids and a range of other conditions.On the product side of the coil a thermal boundary layer will exist in which there is a temperaturegradient between the surface and the bulk fluid. If this temperature difference is relatively large, then thenatural convective currents will be significant and the heat transfer coefficient will be high.Assisted circulation (such as stirring) that will induce forced convection, will also result in higher coefficients. As convection is partially dependent on the bulk motion of the fluid, the viscosity (whichvaries with temperature) also has an important bearing on the thermal boundary layer.Additional variations can also occur on the steam side of the coil, especially with long lengths of pipe.The coil inlet may have a high steam velocity and may be relatively free from water. However, further along the length of the coil the steam velocity may be lower, and the coil may be running partially full of water. In very long coils, such as those sometimes found in seagoing tankers or in large bulk storage
Steam EngineeringPrinciples and HeatTransfer
Engineering UnitsWhat is Steam?Superheated SteamSteam QualityHeat Transfer Methods of Estimating SteamConsumptionMeasurement of SteamConsumptionThermal RatingEnergy Consumption of Tanksand VatsHeating with Coils andJacketsHeating Vats and Tanks bySteam InjectionSteam Consumption of Pipesand Air HeatersSteam Consumption of HeatExchangersSteam Consumption of PlantItemsEntropy - A BasicUnderstandingEntropy - Its Practical Use
Tank Coil Heating
Browse a drawing andcomponent sheet for atypical tank coilapplication.
A comprehensive set of steam tables is availablehere.
Tanks & Vats
Determine the size of steam coil required toheat your tank.HomeAbout UsProducts & ServicesIndustries & ApplicationsTrainingResourcesContact
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