The topics to be addressed by this Commission relate to the social, fiscal andprofessional status of authors, artists and performers. Social security schemesdiffer accordingto whether the artists are self-employed (freelance) or salaried workers. Generally, artists whoare the authors of literary, dramatic, musical, choreographic, audiovisual, photographic andcinematographic works have self-employed status, while performers are salaried. Thisdistinction was very marked 15 years ago but is becoming blurred as a result of changes nartists’ professional lives. Health is one of the major issues for several categories of artists,particularly dancers,but also musicians and visual arts practitioners.
Remuneration and standard of living
2. The remuneration of performers compared to the averagewage varies from country tocountry. Sometimes it is higher, as in Spain, Finland, Israel, Peru and Portugal, but it isusually lower, notably in Argentina, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Japan, Norway, New Zealand,Netherlands, Poland and the Czech Republic.3.Performers generally receive the union minimum, even from employers who are notdirectly covered by a collective agreement. Collective agreements herefore have a generalregulating role, including with respect to employers not legally bound by them. Collectiveagreementsnegotiated by the unions do not yet exist in every country.4. The remuneration of performers s generally equivalent to, or less than, that of teachers.
The proportion of artists in all professional categories iving on remuneration well abovethe average s between 1 and 5 per cent. In some cases t is as high as 10 per cent, as inFinland, Israel, Japan,Norway and Sweden.6.The great majority of performing artists (over 80 per cent) still make their livingprincipally from live performances.However, in the United Kingdom, with its thriving recordindustry, 40 per cent of musicians’incomes come from recording sessions. Generallyspeaking, income from the secondaryuse of recordings is still negligible, and comes mainlyfrom neighbouring rights; remuneration for private copying is not yet a significant source ofincome.7.Authors receive remuneration from copyright. More often than not the amount isnegligible, compelling them to have a second occupation. Visual arts practitioners live fromthe sale of their work which usually goes through commercial galleries. The gallery’scommission on works sold varies between 50 and 40 per cent, depending on the artist’sreputation and the gallery’s professional status, and may be higher or lower.
Social security coverage
8.It emerges from the replies to the survey conducted by UNESCO among its MemberStates hat in most countries there is no specific social security provision for artists in differentprofessions (except in Tunisia for performers, China, Senegaland Syria for authors, Germany,Canada, France (in some regions only), Romania and Switzerland (in some cantons)). Whereit does exist, coverage is not comprehensive, and is highly inadequate, for example, in thecaseof unemployment and pension benefits.