Published bySmithsonian InstitutionP.O. Box 37012Washington, DC 20013-7012www.si.eduCopyright © 2013 by Smithsonian Institution
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmittedin any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the priorpermission of the publisher.Cover: Benjamin Franklin, by Hiram Powers, 1862Smithsonian American Art Museum, Museum purchasein memory of Ralph Cross JohnsonThe Smithsonian has taken all possible steps to ensurethat the information presented is accurate. Any errorsor admissions are inadvertent.ISBN: 978-0-9819500-1-3 (epub)ISBN: 978-0-9819500-2-0 (print)Printed in the United StatesThe paper used in this publication meets theminimum requirements of the American NationalStandard for Permanence of Paper for Printed LibraryMaterials Z39.48–1992.