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Specific diseases of poultry.pdf

Specific diseases of poultry.pdf

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Published by: el_rota9704 on Aug 29, 2013
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Produced by:Agriculture and Consumer ProtectionTitle: Manual on meat inspection for developing countries... More details
 
CHAPTER 7SPECIFIC DISEASES OF POULTRY
Diseases caused by viruses and chlamydia
Avian influenza (Fowl plague, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI))
 Avian influenza is a viral disease of several avian species in various parts of the world. The disease can range from asymptomatic and mild tohyperacute and fatal. Avian influenza occurs infrequently in
humans
. It is seen as an occupational hazard, primarily to those associated with variedactivities in the poultry industry; employees in abattoirs, vaccinators, laboratory staff and other personnel. In most cases the clinical picture is that of 
conjunctivitis
with rare systemic reactions. Avian influenza is reportable disease in many countries. It has to be confirmed by virus isolation.
Transmission
: Secretions from infected birds, by wild birds and contaminated feed, equipment and people. Seabirds and migratory waterfowlcomprise the main reservoir for avian influenza virus.
Antemortem findings
:The incubation period varies from a few hours to about seven days.1.The morbidity and mortality rates can reach 100 % in cases of highly pathogenic strain of the viruses.2.Marked depression, loss of appetite and watery diarrhoea3.Coughing, sneezing, rales, excessive lacrimation4.Drop in egg production in layers5.The conjunctiva is congested and swollen, and occasionally haemorrhagic.6.Swollen combs with cyanotic tips and haemorrhagic surface7.Edematous wattles (Fig. 187) and edema around the eyes, head and neck8.Ruffled feathers and dark red skin (Fig. 188)9.Diffuse haemorrhages between the hocks and feet10.Blood in the cloaca11.
Manual on meat inspection for developing countrieshttp://www.fao.org/docrep/003/t0756e/T0756E08.htm#ch7.2.1.11 sur 4028/08/2013 13:49
 
Some birds may recover, even after being severely affected.12.
Postmortem findings
:Birds that die with the peracute form of AI may show no significant gross lesions1.Dehydration2.In highly pathogenic influenza virus, fibrinous exudate is found in airsacs, oviduct, peritoneum and pericardial sacs.3.Mild to moderate infectionInflammation of conjunctivae, trachea and airsacs4.Pronounced congestion of the musculature5.Ovarian regression in laying birds6.Edema of the head with congestion, haemorrhages and cyanosis of the combs, wattles and sinuses7.Vesicles and ulceration of the comb8.Petechial and ecchymotic haemorrhages in abdominal fat, various serosal and mucosal surfaces, heart, gizzards, proventriculus and smallintestine (Fig. 189)9.The feet often appear edematous with haemorrhages. Red discoloration of the shanks is also noted.10.
Judgement
: Carcasses affected with avian influenza in any form should be
condemned 
.
Differential diagnosis
: Fowl cholera, chlamydiosis, mycoplasmosis, velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease
Manual on meat inspection for developing countrieshttp://www.fao.org/docrep/003/t0756e/T0756E08.htm#ch7.2.1.12 sur 4028/08/2013 13:49
 
Manual on meat inspection for developing countrieshttp://www.fao.org/docrep/003/t0756e/T0756E08.htm#ch7.2.1.13 sur 4028/08/2013 13:49

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