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Harmonically Immersed Gauss Curvature, by Chris Bryant

Harmonically Immersed Gauss Curvature, by Chris Bryant

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Published by Chris Bryant
In this paper, we derive, from the defining equations of Gauss and Weingarten, an intrinsic and concise expression for the Gauss curvature in the simple class of parametric, C3 harmonic immersions from a domain in R2 (with the induced metric) into RN (N > or = 3 ), which reduces to the corresponding (familiar) formula should the harmonic immersion turn out minimal. Using it, we then deduce a corollary, exposing another quantity--also originally defined with reference to the ambient space--as intrinsic. The nature of the proof initially follows the traditional approach used for codimension one. And, for the sake of clarity, we have retained the elementary notation of classical surface theory albeit, of arbitrary codimension.
In this paper, we derive, from the defining equations of Gauss and Weingarten, an intrinsic and concise expression for the Gauss curvature in the simple class of parametric, C3 harmonic immersions from a domain in R2 (with the induced metric) into RN (N > or = 3 ), which reduces to the corresponding (familiar) formula should the harmonic immersion turn out minimal. Using it, we then deduce a corollary, exposing another quantity--also originally defined with reference to the ambient space--as intrinsic. The nature of the proof initially follows the traditional approach used for codimension one. And, for the sake of clarity, we have retained the elementary notation of classical surface theory albeit, of arbitrary codimension.

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Published by: Chris Bryant on Aug 31, 2013
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Harmonically Immersed GaussCurvature
Chris E. Bryant
Department of MathematicsOregon State Universitycbryant@math.orst.edu
October 25, 2002
Introduction.
In a remarkable paper [5], the late Tilla K. Weinstein (at thetime, Tilla K. Milnor) explored the similarities and differences be-tween two-dimensional minimal immersions, and their more generalrelatives, the two-dimensional harmonic immersions. One of the fewgeometric objects she did
not 
compare—at least, in her publishedwork—was their
Gauss curvatures 
. Recently re-reading this article,it became clear that there should be an
intrinsic 
and
concise 
ex-pression for the Gauss curvature in the simple class of parametric,
C
3
harmonic immersions 
from a domain in
R
2
(with the inducedmetric) into
R
(
3), which would reduce to the corresponding(familiar) formula should the harmonic immersion turn out minimal.That an
intrinsic 
expression exists is assured by Gauss’ (generalized)
Theorema Egregium 
(see [3] for an exceptionally clear treatment).That such an expression
reveals 
more than it
obscures 
is anothermatter entirely. It turns out that, in this restricted class, an intrin-sic formula may be expressed in a very
concise 
form, clearly exposingthe underlying minimal version as an obvious special case.In this paper, we derive just such a formulation from the defin-ing equations of Gauss and Weingarten. Using it, we then deducea corollary, exposing another quantity—also originally defined withreference to the ambient space—as intrinsic. The nature of the proof initially follows the traditional approach used for codimension one(see, for instance, [2] or [4]). And, for the sake of clarity, we haveretained the elementary notation of 
classical 
surface theory—albeit,of arbitrary codimension. Finally, as a courtesy to the reader, severalcrucial, but tedious, calculations have been placed in an
Appendix 
at the conclusion—for referral or avoidance, as the case may be.1
 
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 
2
Theorem 1
. Suppose that
χ
=
χ
(
u,v
) :
D ⊂
R
2
R
(with
3 and
D
a domain) is a
C
3
parametric map, harmonically(i.e.,
χ
uu
+
χ
vv
= 0) immersed in
R
, and let
=
u
+
iv
be theinduced complex parameter. Also, let
:=
χ
u
·
χ
u
,
:=
χ
u
·
χ
v
,and
G
:=
χ
v
·
χ
v
be the coefficients of the induced metric, throughwhich, the
energy-density 
:
ε
=
ε
(
) and “
conformal impedance 
”:
h
=
h
(
), may be defined by
ε
:=
12
(
+
G
) and
h
:=
12
(
E −G
)
i
.
Then the
Gauss curvature 
,
χ
=
χ
(
) , is given by
χ
=
og
(
ε
2
|
h
|
2
)4
ε
12
ε
ε
3
(
h/ε
2
)
z
ε
2
|
h
|
2
2
(1)where ∆ := 4
∂ 
z
∂ 
z
= (
∂ 
u
)
2
+ (
∂ 
v
)
2
, with
∂ 
z
:=
12
(
∂ 
u
i∂ 
v
) .
Remarks
.1. Observe that
h
0 (iff the harmonic immersion alreadycomes fully-equipped with
conformal 
parameters) gives the well-known classical formula, wherein
ε
=
=
G
.2. Each of 
ε, h
and
χ
are actually defined on the induced, com-plex domain,
D
C
—essentially the same open, connectedset as
D ⊂
R
2
, but recast in its complex role via
=
u
+
iv
.Through this description
1
the
metric 
naturally emerges as thesum,
ds
2
χ
=
ε
|
dz 
|
2
+ Re
{
hdz 
2
}
.3. For any such harmonic immersion, what has been termed the“conformal impedance” is always a
analytic 
function. To provethis, notice that
h
= 2
χ
z
·
χ
z
. Therefore,
h
z
= 2(
χ
z
·
χ
z
)
z
= 4
χ
z
·
χ
z z
=
χ
z
·
χ
= 0
,
by the harmonicity of 
χ
. Hence,
h
:
D
C
is analytic,since it satisfies the (complex)
Cauchy-Riemann 
equation.
1
Pairing
D
with its
conformal structure 
creates an open
Riemann surface 
. Since thereon,the conformal change:
z
z
(
w
) induces the change:
∂ 
z
(
z
(
w
))
1
∂ 
w
(and, of course,
dz
z
(
w
)
dw
), using
ε
= 2
χ
z
·
χ
z
and
h
= 2
χ
z
·
χ
z
, one may verify directly that
χ
, ε
|
dz
|
2
and
hdz
2
are invariantly defined (i.e.,
conformally invariant 
) on this surface.
 
HARMONICALLY IMMERSED GAUSS CURVATURE 
3
Proof 
. First, we write out the
Gauss-Weingarten 
equations fora two-dimensional, class
C
3
harmonic immersion into
R
, where
3, assuming (
 N 
1
,...,
 N 
2
) forms an orthonormal frame forthe normal space at each point,
p
o
=
χ
(
u
o
,v
o
)—that is, we writeout
χ
uu
= Γ
111
χ
u
+ Γ
211
χ
v
+
α
α
( =
χ
vv
)
χ
uv
= Γ
112
χ
u
+ Γ
212
χ
v
+
m
α
α
(=
χ
vu
)
 N 
 ju
=
a
 j
11
χ
u
+
a
 j
21
χ
v
+
λ
 jα
α
(
j
= 1
,...,
2)
 N 
 jv
=
a
 j
12
χ
u
+
a
 j
22
χ
v
+
µ
 jα
α
(
j
= 1
,...,
2)
.
Here, the Γ
r pq
are the
Christoffel coefficients 
; the
α
and the
m
α
correspond, for each
α
= 1
,...,N 
2, to the (two indepen-dent) coefficients of the
second-fundamental form 
, in the normaldirection,
α
—which may be defined via the complex function:
lh
α
:=
α
im
α
:=
α
·
(
χ
uu
uv
); and the coefficients
λ
 jα
and
µ
 jα
may similarly be defined as the real and imaginary parts of the
projections 
,
ιn
 jα
:=
λ
 jα
 jα
:=
α
·
(
 N 
 ju
i
 N 
 jv
) . Finally,the
Weingarten coefficients 
, adapted to an harmonic
χ
(i.e., with
 j
n
 j
:=
 j
·
χ
vv
), are given (see [2], pg 155, for
= 3) by
a
 j
11
=
m
 j
G
 j
Λ
2
, a
 j
21
=
 j
m
 j
Λ
2
,a
 j
12
=
−F 
 j
G
m
 j
Λ
2
, a
 j
22
=
m
 j
+
 j
Λ
2
.
Above, Λ :=
√ EG−F 
2
(
>
0, since
χ
is assumed immersive).We are obviously employing an
Einstein summation 
convention inthese 2
2 vector equations. Since the ambient space is equippedwith the standard Euclidean “dot-product”, it trivially follows that
 N 
α
α
. For this reason, we hope the reader will forgive the“asymmetry” of upper and lower indices in the definitions of the
lh
α
, the
ιn
 jα
, and (therefore, also) the
a
 j pq
.

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