Part 1. Bilateral Relations
After more than a decade-long estrangement (1978-89), leaders from Hanoiand Beijing met in southern China in September 1990 and agreed tonormalize bilateral relations. China and Vietnam resumed high-level politicalcontact in November 1991, pointedly only after Vietnam had agreed to acomprehensive political settlement in Cambodia. In early 1999, bilateralpolitical relations were codified at a meeting of party leaders held in Beijing.
In the period between normalization of relations and the codification ofpolitical relations, Vietnam and China inaugurated discussions at the expertlevel to work out a settlement of their disputes regarding the land border andGulf of Tonkin. The first expert-level discussions were held in October 1992.A year later, government-level talks led to agreement on the principles for thesettlement of territorial disputes. The land border and Gulf of Tonkin disputeswere separated and each assigned to a specialist joint working group. The joint working group on land issues first met in February 1994 and concluded inDecember 1999 after sixteen meetings when Vietnam and China signed atreaty on the land border. The joint working group on the Gulf of Tonkin firstmet in March 1994 and held seventeen meetings before reaching agreement.Expert-level discussions on maritime issues (eg. the South China Sea)commenced in November 1995.In December 2000, Vietnam and China signed two important documents, theAgreement on the Demarcation of Waters, Exclusive Economic Zones andContinental Shelves in the Gulf of Tonkin and the Agreement on FishingCooperation in the Gulf of Tonkin. More importantly, Vietnam and Chinaissued a Joint Statement for Comprehensive Cooperation in the NewCentury.’
This document set out the structure of bilateral relations through along-term framework for cooperation.
Vietnam and China established a JointCommission for Economic and Trade Cooperation to handle their economicrelations. By January 2008, the Joint Commission had met six times.It is notable that China also negotiated similar agreements with all the otherregional states. Between February 1999 and December 2000, for example,China negotiated long-term cooperative framework arrangements with theother nine ASEAN members.
Generally these took the form of jointstatements signed by foreign ministers or vice premiers.
. Six of China’s long-term cooperative frameworkagreements included a reference to security cooperation (Thailand, Malaysia,Brunei, Singapore, the Philippines, and Laos). Subsequently, several of theselong-term framework agreements have been enhanced through additional joint declarations and/or memoranda of understanding. It is notable that no
Xinhua Domestic Service, February 27, 1999.
Vietnam News Agency, December 25, 2000.
These arrangements were variously titled: framework agreement, framework document, joint statement and joint declaration. For a detailed analysis consult: Thayer 2003a. For recentoverviews of China’s bilateral relations with Southeast Asia consult: Haacke 2005 andPercival 2007.