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Grammar

Grammar

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Published by: priyanka on Jun 16, 2009
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10/18/2011

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1
Chapter 1
 A few grammatical terms andwhat they mean
 
Sentence:
Sentence is a group of words, which makes a complete sense. A sentence has two parts. Subject and predicate.
Subject:
 The person, thing or idea that performs the action in the verb (
do-er 
of the verb) or shows the
being ness
inthe verb (
be-er 
of the verb) is the grammatical subject of the sentence.E.g.
 He
plays cricket. (
 He
is the
do-er 
of the verb, hence
 He
is the subject)
 He
is a great cricketer. (
 He
is the
be-er,
hence the subject)E.g.
 He
was awarded the Man of the Match by the ICB.(
 He
in a way shows the
being ness
of the verb ‘was awarded’, hence
 He
is the
 grammatical subject 
of thesentence. This is the case in the passive voice; the grammatical subject may look like the beneficiary of theaction performed by another agency and not appear to be the do-er or the be-er. The do-er or the be-er willthen be the object of the preposition ‘by’ (the ICB). In the passive voice most sentences will make perfectsense without the ‘by ...’ phrase.
Predicate:
 What is said about the subject is predicate.E.g. Lovebirds
are parrots.
Lovebirds
tend to sit close to their mates with their heads touching.
The italicized part is the predicate in each case.
Phrase:
A group of words which makes sense but not complete sense.E.g.
tend to sit close to their mates with their heads touching.
Clause:
A group of words that makes sense and contains a predicate in itself, but is different from a sentence in thatit still does not make complete sense.E. g.
that tend to sit close to their mates with their heads touching.
(‘tend to sit close to their mates withtheir heads touching’ functions as a predicate though there is no subject.)
Parts of Speech:
The words in English are classified into eight groups depending on their function in a sentence.(The key here is
 function of a particular word in a sentence.
The same word can be of different parts of speech depending on its function in another sentence.)
 
2
The parts of speech are: Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, Conjunctions, Prepositions andInterjections.(Some authorities would not list ‘interjections’, but would list ‘determiners’, instead.). We will studydeterminers (
a, an, the, some,
etc.) under adjectives.
 
3
Chapter 2
Nouns
 
Grammar
 
A noun is a name. The moment we name something that exists or does not exist, that name becomes anoun. A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or an idea.
A Proper Noun
— names a specific person, place, or thing. A proper noun almost always begins with acapital letter.E.g. Sachin, King Asoka, Far East, Delhi, India, God, Hindi, Hinduism, the Bharatiya Janata Party….
Common Nouns
— name everything else. Common nouns usually are not capitalized.E.g. man, city, nation, pen ….
Abstract Nouns
— These are names of ideas and are theoretical and intangible.E.g. information, anger, education, melancholy, softness, violence ….
Compound Nouns
— These are combinations of different nouns.E.g. girl friend, fish merchant, play ground …
Collective Nouns
— These are nouns which can take a singular form but are composed of more than oneindividual person or items.E.g. jury, team, class, committee, herd, flock 
A Noun Phrase
— A Noun phrase is frequently a noun accompanied by modifiers, is a group of relatedwords acting as a noun.E.g. the fee reduction proposal, the oil depletion allowance, the abnormal behaviour, hideously enlargednose
A Noun Clause
— A group of related words can act as a single noun-like entity within a sentence. A Nounclause contains a subject and verb and can do anything that a noun can do:
What he does to the street children
is a blessing.Take a closer look at the following categories of nouns, as situations in competitive exams test your awareness of these.
Count Nouns
— Simply, these can be countedE.g. six
books,
a dozen
eggs,
many
 players,
a few
mistakes,
some
coins
 
Non-Count Nouns
— Sometimes these are called Mass Nouns as it is not always possible to count them.E.g. wood, cloth, ice, etc.

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