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Cc Sangamonian America

Cc Sangamonian America

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Migration
&
Diffusion,VoL
6,
Issue
Number
23,2005
SANGAMONIAN AMERICA
by
Prof. Cyclone Covey
Summary
The
world's
leading diatomist
Sam
Leighton
Van
Landingham
culminatively
corroborates
the archaeological site Hueyatlaco
at
the Valsequillo
Reservoir just south
of
Puebla, MexicoasMiddlePleistocene,identifying
nu
mer
ousartifact-associated
diatom
species
that
grewextinctbeforethelast glacier. Hueyatlaco
corr
esponds to Middle Pleistocene sites in
Europe
except possibly
older
because its extinct animal bones include
rhynchotheres
(ancestralelephants) believed to havedied
out
beforetbePleistocene
but
obviously lived longerin theNew
World
fromS
outh
America to Cali
fo
roia.Van
Lan
dingh
am
verifies com
parablera
diometric
dat
es, geological
stratum, and
diatomaceous
Homo erectus
skullcap, as also
Homo erectus
stone tools found in western American deserts (prairies in thePleistocene)
Wy
omingtoCbile).
THE 20th CENTURY left manyintimations
of
people
in
the Americasbefore continent-wide spread
of
Clovispoints which were Magdalenian.Prejudgment and limited imaginationblocked acknowledging continuity
of
New World cultures with Old earlier thanClovis and then inunensely earlier.T
he
irreproachable archaeologistRuthDeEtte Simpson
("Dee")
announced 1962in Mexico City having since 1955 foundLower Paleolithic art ifacts vastly
(scrapers, choppers, handaxes)
in
desertsfrom Baja California to Wyoming to theRockies, Sonora, and Atacama Desert
of
north-coastal Chile-all prairie in thePleistocene. Colleagues who neverdoubted Dee's veracity could not belie
ve
her artifacts man-made. At Tule Springs
in
Vegas Wash
(13
miles NE
of
Las Vegas),
in
addition to chipped bone and stonetools associated with split-&-bumtextinct-animal remains on oak-&-juniperash hearthsshefound
(1961)
a scraperwith-charcoalin aside
ca
nyon thatcarbon-dated 26,050-31,000
B.
C
.-
beyond not only Clovis but prior
Solutrean-and
already had reported 70+sites in Black's Forest Locality
of
SW
Wyoming bearing muchearlierdiagnostic tools classifiable Pre-Chellean,Chellean, and Mousterian
["AnIntroductiou
10
Ea
r
ly
Western American History,"
SouthernC
alif
Acad.SciencesBulletin
L
Y/2
(1956),65-66].
61
 
Migration
&
Diffusion, Val.
6,
Issue
Number
23,2005
She excavated what proved aworkshop/living area
in
the MojaveDesert
412
miles
NE
of
Yermo, Calif.whose tools were Oldowan-type, as LouisLeakey recognized 1963 from hercollection
of
11,000+ which uraniumdated over 200,000 years identical to
Homo erectus
artifacts
he
and his familyhad dug from Olduvai Gorge. He locatedthe main site a few miles farther up inCalico foothills above Manix Lake whoseconfrrming excavation began 1964
[Leakey,Simpson, & Thomas Clements, "Archaeological Excavation
in
the Calico Mts., CaJif: Preliminary Report,"
SeieneeCLXl3831
(31May 1968), 1022].
Anthropologistsoft
he
time generally could not accept thisheresy, but everything unearthed wasconsistent with itself, Lower PaleolithicAfricaiEurope, and astounding uraniumdates.Candid George Carter excavated metates,scrapers, handaxes, and choppers
of
thesame style along with thousands
of
hearths 1947 and summers to 1976 atTexas Street, San Diego dating on theorder
of
80,000-130,000 years. TexasStreet has been landscapedunrecognizably, but Herb Marshall'sexcavation
ofthe
C.H. Brown site 3 mileswest, found it duplicated Texas St.stratigraphy
[Carter,
Pleisloeene
Man
al San Diego
(lohns Hopkins
U.
1957);
eie.].
A skull that Malcolm
J.
Rogers excavated1929 from a cliff on the north side
of
SanDieguito mouth near DeI Mar racetrackwhich Jeffrey Bada 1974 dated 48,000years by pro tein racemization, and onethat washed out
of
Lake Utah sediments
in
the 1930s which Paleontologist GeorgeHansen measured, were both Neanderthai
[Carter,
Laler than
You
Think
(Texas A&M
U.
1980), 56-58,293-94].
Alan
L.
Bryan reported a moreprimitive skull discovered
in
Brazil
[ed.,
Early
Man
in
Americaji-om a Cireum-Paeifie Perspeelive,
Occasional Papers # I (U. Alberta Dept. AnthropoJogy 1978);cited
in
ibid.
291].
ANCIENT BOULDER-PILEDcarrnburials strew the Southern
& SE
California desert. James
L.
Bischoff
of
the U.S. Gelogical Survey with 2 othergeologists,
W.
Morlin Childers
&
Roy
J.
Schlemon,determined from depthand soil pluviality,
etc.
that a Yuha-Desertcairn burial near the Mexican border west
of
EI
Centro fell in the last glaciaVpluvial
c.16,150-20,050
B.e.
(I
argely Solutrean)
["Comments on the P!esitocene Age Assignment
of
a HumanBurial from the Yuha Desert, Calif..: A Rebuttal,"
AmerieanAntiquily
XLlII/4 (Ocl. 1978),747).
CONTINENT -ROAMINGClovisspearmen concentrated more alongeastern and Ohio
&
Tennessee Valleyrivers than in New Mexico where frrstidentified, thus likelier reached America
via
the Atlantic than the Bering landbridge, especially considering Siberianabsence
of
Franco-Spanish-type flutedflakes. Siberia also had
no
prior Sandiapoints identical to those
of
SolutreanEurope at the height
ofthe
last glacier.Frank Cummings Hibben
of
U.
NewMexico Museum first identifiedSandiapoints in the bedrock stratum ofSandiaCave northeast
of
Albuquerque1936-37associated with extinct mammoth,mastodon,
excelsius
horse,
antiquus
bison, and camel
[Hibben, "Association
of
Man withPleistocene Mammals
in
the Sandia Mts., N.M.,"
AmericanAnliquity
11/4
(April 1937) 120-63; &
Evidenees
oI
EarlyOeeupalion
in
Sandia Cave,
NM,
and
Olher Siles
in Ihe
Sandia-Manzano Region, Smilhsonian Miseellaneol/sColleelions
XC1X123
(1941»).
In conventionalpresupposition, Hibben couldnot conceive transatlantic transmissionbut came to recognize
"alarmingly wide"
distribution-to
SE
New Mexico andadjacent West Texas counties, centralOklahoma, West
&
South Missouri,South Iowa, and extreme East Co
lo
rado,
62
 
Migra
ti
on
&
D
ijf
uJion,
VoL
6,
lJJu
eNumber
23,
2005
\
le\\
of
lilh!'}M!OCO
from
the
r
h)
rth\\~'\1
uurin~
cXt"ilvtH
io
n
in
191~.
A
lrt:u
l.!h
hn'!o.
be~n
CU
L
ltuo
u
lffi;J
con'ronojup.
led~c
ul
\ljkan
i
t:
.,
lI
(L;Cnl
c1
ill'l'lmalhca
llerllllcHm:Y:.llhJCll
<1.
..
11
.Thc
mull
atIhc
uppcr
tighr
l.
ncdsun
a
I
~
u
lle
form~,-
l
bv.:J.
mudIln
'
11I{on
n
.
llI~
rHime
t
Lhc
1dC)U
bmwn
mull
Sltcl1
\lchll!rt.
.r
-r
\-
\d
l.
'I.,Me
,
(,tillT"""'f)
~s,"
m
""
~'\.
I,
lC)fot
1L
-l
((''r;W
lt'
'l'
I
If"m/ungunH
but raJsmg such res
tn
ctIve criteria
(e.g
rejectinga large Oregon specimen solety on suspicion)
that by the end
of
1945 hecertified only
38
specimens as certainlygenuine
["
Th
eFirst
38
Sandia Points lndustry," AmericanAntiquity
XI/3
(Jan.
1946),257-68].
Hannah MarieWormington,esteemed Denver Museumarchaeology curator, verified minimal additional specimens from eastern
Albe11a
,
NE
Alabama,and near aprimeval lake at Long Valley,
Calif
[Ancienl Man
in
Norlh America
(Denver:MuseumofNatural History
1957
),9
1).
Hibben' s discoveries predated carbon-14dating. The preeminent geologist KirkBryan
of
Harvard
U.
correlated the thickyellow ochre
(=
flooded)
stratum abovethe Sandia-points stratum with theWisconsin pluvial maximum,thus theSandia stratum earlier than 23,000
B.C.
(pre-Solutrean),
the Folsom stratum aboveyellow ochre late Pleistocene,and topcaliche layer ascribed to return
of
heavyrains
[
"A
ncient Man
in
America."
Geographic
a/
Review
XX
VII
(1937),
50
7
-0
9;
&
"Correlation
of
th
eDepositsof SandiaCave,N.M.,wi
1h
theGlacialChronoIogy,"appendix
10
Hibben,
Evidences
0/
Ear/yOccu
pa
lion
in
SandiaCave.op eil.).
Hugo
GrOSS
of
Bamberg, Germany, though highly respect
fu
lof Bry
an'
scorrelations, equated the yellow ochrestratum with Europ's Göttweig loam thatformedduring the Würm IIII interstad
ia
l
cAO
,050-26,050
B.C.
,thus theSandia points layer earlier than that
["Age of
th
e SandiaCultwe,"
Science C
XXVl
/3268
(16
Au
g.
1957),305-06).
JOSEPH McA VOY 1987 discovered 2unfluted white points together withquru1zite blades and bladelets plusunstruck cores 5 millennia
older
than theClovis stratum above
it,
at CactusHilloverlooking Nottaway River 50 milessouth
of
Richmond, Virgina. Nearbycharcoal particles carbon-dated
13
,1220±70 &14,050 ±730
B.C.
[Stuart
1.
Fi
del, "The Peopling
of
theNew World,"
Journal
0 
Arc
hae%
gica/ Research
VlIlII
(March
2000), 47).
Similarly at theTopper Site on the Savannah nearAllendale, South CarolinaProf Albert Goodyear's resumed digging a yard
below
the Clovis layer revealed scores
of
blades and flakes that
he
cautiouslyestimated older than 10,060
B.C.
butwhich will surely prove far older.
An
63

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