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Understanding How Components Fail

Understanding How Components Fail

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Understand how components fail
Understand how components fail

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Published by: ajayghosh3140 on Sep 01, 2013
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12/27/2013

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UnderstandingHow Components Fail
Donald J. Wulpi
Second Edition
 
Contents
Preface to the Second Edition...............................ix Preface to the First Edition.....................................x CHAPTER 1: Techniques of Failure Analysis...........1
Procedure for Failure Analysis ........................................................2Investigative Techniques .................................................................3Normal Location of Fracture............................................................4Questions to Ask about Fractures....................................................6Summary .........................................................................................10
CHAPTER 2: Distortion Failures............................13
Types of Distortion Failure............................................................13Temporary Distortion.................................................................14Permanent Distortion..................................................................14Summary .........................................................................................19
CHAPTER 3: Basic Single-LoadFracture Modes.................................................21
Shear Mode .....................................................................................22Cleavage Mode ...............................................................................23Other Fracture Modes.....................................................................24Factors Affecting the Ductile Brittle Relationship.......................25Summary .........................................................................................27
CHAPTER 4: Stress Systems Related to Single-LoadFracture of Ductile and Brittle Metals ..................29
Pure Loading Systems....................................................................30Tension Loading .............................................................................30Torsional Loading...........................................................................32Compression Loading.....................................................................36Bending Loading.............................................................................37Fatigue.............................................................................................37Summary .........................................................................................37
CHAPTER 5: Mechanical Properties......................39
Elastic and Plastic Deformation.....................................................39Effect of Temperature ....................................................................42Nonlinear Behavior.........................................................................43
v
 
Bidirectional Stresses.....................................................................44Effect of Stress Concentrations .....................................................46Summary .........................................................................................48
CHAPTER 6: Stress Versus Strength .....................49
Elastic Stress Distributions for Simple Shapes.............................50Summary .........................................................................................59
CHAPTER 7: Residual Stresses .............................61
Thermal Residual Stresses .............................................................65Metallurgical Residual Stresses.....................................................70Mechanical Residual Stresses........................................................71Chemical Effects on Residual Stresses .........................................75Helpful Hints...................................................................................76Summary .........................................................................................79
CHAPTER 8: Brittle Fracture .................................83
Brittle Fracture of Normally Ductile Steels .................................84Characteristics of Brittle Fracture .................................................88Microstructural Aspects of Brittle Fracture..................................91Combined Fracture Modes.............................................................99Summary .......................................................................................100
CHAPTER 9: Ductile Fracture..............................103
Characteristics of Ductile Fracture..............................................104Microstructural Aspects of Ductile Fracture ..............................107Cautions in Interpretation ............................................................114Summary .......................................................................................115
CHAPTER 10: Fatigue Fracture...........................117
Stages of Fatigue Fracture ...........................................................118Microscopic Characteristics of Fatigue Fracture........................120Macroscopic Characteristics of Fatigue Fracture.......................124Lack of Deformation ................................................................124Beachmarks...............................................................................125Ratchet Marks...........................................................................126Similarities between Striations and Beachmarks ...................128Differences between Striations and Beachmarks ...................129Relationship of Stress to Strength in Fatigue .............................130Laboratory Fatigue Testing..........................................................134Other Types of Fatigue.................................................................136Statistical Aspects of Fatigue.......................................................143Examples of Fatigue Fracture......................................................144Summary .......................................................................................161
CHAPTER 11: Wear Failures— Abrasive and Adhesive..................................163
Abrasive Wear ..............................................................................164Adhesive Wear..............................................................................173
vi

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