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Physics 11 Summary

# Physics 11 Summary

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'08-'09 summary of Mr. Brock's Physics 11 class; from R.A. McMath Secondary

*there are some things missing from this, and I advise that if you take this course you should add your own notes and examples too it
'08-'09 summary of Mr. Brock's Physics 11 class; from R.A. McMath Secondary

*there are some things missing from this, and I advise that if you take this course you should add your own notes and examples too it

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07/03/2013

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IntroductionMeter
: distance light travels in vacuum during time interval of 1/299,792,458s
Second
: time for 9,192,631,770 wavelengths of radiation to be emitted by a cesium atom
Kilogram
: mass of a sphere carved from a single crystal of silicon-28
PrefixSymbolSci. Not.
Picop10
-12
Nanon10
-9
Microµ10
-6
Millim10
-3
Centic10
-2
Decid10
-1
Kilok10
3
MegaM10
6
GigaG10
9
TeraT10
12
Parallax
: apparent shift in the position of an object when it is viewed from different angles
Graphing
: (dependent variable; x) as a function of (independent variable; y)
: y=ax
2
+bx+c
Inverse
: y=a/xcontact force
objects touchlong range force
gravity, magnetsagents
source of the force
Period & FrequencyPeriod
(T): time needed to repeat one complete cycle of motion
Frequency
(f): number of cycles that take place in one second; 1 cycle/s = 1 Hz
Period of mass oscillating on a spring is
T=2π√(m/k)
m: mass of the oscillating object k: spring constant (if not known, can be found using
k=F/x
) F: force applied to spring  x: distance the spring extends Period of pendulum is
T=2π√(
l
/g)

l
: length of pendulum g: acceleration due to gravity (9.80 m/s
2
) Force of compressed or stretched spring
F = kx
F: forcek: spring constant  x: amount spring has been stretched or compresse
Scalar and Vector quantities
Scalar Quantity: quantity that tells you only magnitude
(mass, distance and temperature)
Vector Quantity: quantity that has magnitude and direction
(displacement and velocity)
Distance and Displacement
Distance is the total length an object has moved and has no direction associated with it. Displacement is the straight-line distance between two points, and is a vector which points from an object's initial position towards its final position. (If you end where youstarted, displacement is 0)
Speed and Velocity
Average Speed: amount of distance a moving object covers divided by the amount of time to cover that distance.
v=∆d/∆t

Acceleration
Average acceleration: rate of change of velocity between t
0
and t
1
a=v
1
-v
0
/t
1
-t
0
Equations of motion
Velocity with constant acceleration
v
1
=v
0
+at
Final position with constant acceleration
d=d
o
+1/2(v
0
+v
1
)t; d=d
o
+v
o
t+1/2at
2
Final velocity with constant acceleration
v
12
=v
02
+2a(d
1
-d
0
)Projectile motion
Ignoring air resistance, horizontal velocity of a projectile is constant
v
x
=∆d/t=constant
Initial vertical velocity of a projectile launched horizontally is zero
v
oy
=0
Final velocity found using
v
fy
=-gtGravitational Field Strength
A gravitational field exists for all objects that have mass. At the Earth's surface Earth’s GFS is g=9.80m/s
2
.Weight is the force of gravity acting on a body. Weight is the product of the mass of an object and the acceleration due to gravitythat is acting on an object w=mg. Mass is a constant that does not change with location. Weight is not a constant and does changedepending on the location of the object
Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation
States that every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
F=G(m
1
m
2
/r
2
)
F: gravitational force in NewtonsG: universal gravitational constant
6.67x10
-11
N
·
m
2
/kg
2
m
1
, m
2:
the 2 massesr: the distance between the centres of the 2 masses
Newton’s Laws of Motion1. Newton’s First Law of Motion (“Law of Inertia”)
A body at rest stays at rest, and a body in motion stays in motion, unless it is acted on by an external forceInertia: tendency of an object to resist changeEquilibrium: when the net force on an object is at 0; occurs in state of rest or constant velocity
2. Newton’s Second Law of Motion (“Law of Force and Acceleration”)
A force acting on a mass causes that mass to accelerate in the direction of the force. The acceleration is directly proportional to theforce and inversely proportional to the mass.
3. Newton’s Third Law of Motion (“Law of Action and Reaction”)
For every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force. Action-reaction pairs act on different bodies, and they do notcancel each other. (Force a book exerts on a table and the force a table exerts on a book).
[Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body exerts an oppositely directed force of equal magnitude on the first body]
FrictionKinetic Friction
: The friction between two surfaces when one surface is moving relative to the other
f
K
: force of kinetic friction
Static Friction
: The friction between two surfaces when the surfaces are not moving relative to each other
f
s
: force of static friction
Force of friction = f
x
= µF
N
µ: coefficient of frictionF
N
: normal force (the reaction force to an object's weight)
µ = f
x
/F
N
x
= µ(F
N
)

Dynamics in One DimensionMomentum
The momentum of an objects is the product of its mass and its velocity
p=mv
p: momentum in kgm/s,m: mass in kgv: velocity in m/s.Change in momentum: ∆p=∆(mv)
Impulse
The product of the average net force exerted on an object and the time interval over which the force acts.
Impulse = F∆T
F: average force in Newtonst: time that the force is applied.
Impulse and Momentum
The impulse given to an object is equal to the object's change in momentum.
F∆t=∆(mv)The law of conservation of momentum
Momentum for any closed system upon which there is no net external force remains the same. p
i
=p
P
ai
+P
bi
=P
af
+P
bf
m
a
v
a
+m
b
v
b
=m
a
v
af
+m
b
v
bf
Elastic ForcesHooke’s Law
The force needed to compress or stretch a string is directly proportional to the product of the spring constant, k, and the amount thespring has been stretched or compressed.
F=k∆x
F: applied (or restoring) force in Newtonsk: spring constant in N/m∆x: distortion of the spring in m
Work, Energy, & PowerWork
Work is equal to the component of a force that is in the direction of the motion of an object & the displacement of the object
W=FcosθdPower
Power is the rate of doing work or the rate at which energy is transferred; measured in watts; 1 W = 1 J/s
Power = work/timeP = Fcosθd/tEnergy
: property of an object that allows it to produce change in the environment or in itself. The work-energy theorem states thatthe change in energy of an object is exactly equal to the work done on it.
W=∆EKinetic Energy = KE = ½(mv
2
)Gravitational Potential Energy = PE = mgh
where m is the mass, g the acceleration due to gravity, h is the height the object is above a reference plane.
Gravitational Potential Energy (PE or Ug): PE is the stored energy in a system resulting from the gravitational interaction between masses. When we state an object’s PE we must say which plane we are using as thereference plane.
PE=mgh

Mechanical Energy:
sum of the kinetic and potential energy
E
i
= E
mgh
i
+ ½(mv
i2
) = mgh
+ ½(mv
2
)Efficiency
= (work output/work input) x 100%