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Basics of Mechanism

Basics of Mechanism

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Basics of Mechanism
Basics of Mechanism

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Published by: jay on Sep 02, 2013
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01/25/2014

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CHAPTER 1
BASICS OFMECHANISMS
 
Complex machines from internal combustion engines to heli-copters and machine tools contain many mechanisms. However,it might not be as obvious that mechanisms can be found in con-sumer goods from toys and cameras to computer drives andprinters. In fact,many common hand tools such as scissors,screwdrivers,wrenches,jacks,and hammers are actually truemechanisms. Moreover,the hands and feet,arms,legs,and jawsof humans qualify as functioning mechanisms as do the paws andlegs,flippers,wings,and tails of animals.There is a difference between a
machine
and a
mechanism
:All machines transform energy to do work,but only some mech-anisms are capable of performing work. The term
machinery
means an assembly that includes both machines and mecha-nisms. Figure 1a illustrates a cross section of a machine—aninternal combustion engine. The assembly of the piston,con-necting rod,and crankshaft is a mechanism,termed a
slider-crank mechanism
. The basic schematic drawing of that mechanism,Fig. 1b,called a
skeleton outline
,shows only its fundamen-tal structure without the technical details explaining how it isconstructed.
Efficiency of Machines
Simple machines are evaluated on the basis of efficiency andmechanical advantage. While it is possible to obtain a largerforce from a machine than the force exerted upon it,this refersonly to force and not energy; according to the law of conserva-tion of energy,
more work cannot be obtained from a machinethan the energy supplied to it 
. Because work 
ϭ
force
ϫ
distance,for a machine to exert a larger force than its initiating force oroperator,that larger force must be exerted through a correspond-ingly shorter distance. As a result of friction in all movingmachinery,the energy produced by a machine is less than thatapplied to it. Consequently,by interpreting the law of conservationof energy,it follows that:Input energy
ϭ
output energy
ϩ
wasted energyThis statement is true over any period of time,so it applies toany unit of time; because power is work or energy per unit of time,the following statement is also true:Input power
ϭ
output power
ϩ
wasted powerThe
efficiency of a machine is the ratio of its output to itsinput 
,if both input and output are expressed in the same units of energy or power. This ratio is always less than unity,and it is usu-ally expressed in percent by multiplying the ratio by 100.Percent efficiency
ϭ
output energyinput energy
ϫ
100
2
INTRODUCTION
Fig.1
Cross section of a cylinder of an internal combustionengine showing piston reciprocation (a), and the skeleton outline ofthe linkage mechanism that moves the piston (b).
PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES
orA machine has high efficiency if most of the power suppliedto it is passed on to its load and only a fraction of the power iswasted. The efficiency can be as high as 98 percent for a largeelectrical generator,but it is likely to be less than 50 percent fora screw jack. For example,if the input power supplied to a 20-hpmotor with an efficiency of 70 percent is to be calculated,theforegoing equation is transposed.
Mechanical Advantage
The
mechanical advantage
of a mechanism or system is the ratioof the load or weight
,typically in pounds or kilograms,dividedby the effort or force
exerted by the initiating entity or opera-tor,also in pounds or kilograms. If friction has been consideredor is known from actual testing,the mechanical advantage,MA,of a machine is:MA
ϭ
loadeffort
ϭ
ϭ
20 hp70
ϫ
100
ϭ
28.6 hpInput power
ϭ
output powerpercent efficiency
ϫ
100Percent efficiency
ϭ
output powerinput power
ϫ
100
 
However,if it is assumed that the machine operates withoutfriction,the ratio of 
divided by
is called the
theoreticalmechanical advantage
,TA.
Velocity Ratio
Machines and mechanisms are used to translate a small amountof movement or distance into a larger amount of movement orTA
ϭ
loadeffort
ϭ
distance. This property is known as the
velocity ratio
. It isdefined as the ratio of the distance moved by the effort per sec-ond divided by the distance moved by the load per second for amachine or mechanism. It is widely used in determining themechanical advantage of gears or pulleys.VR
ϭ
distance moved by effort/seconddistance moved by load/second
3
INCLINED PLANE
Fig.2
Diagram for calculating mechanical advantage of aninclined plane.
The
inclined 
plane,shown in Fig. 2,has an incline length
l
(AB)
ϭ
8 ft and a height
h
(BC)
ϭ
3 ft. The inclined plane permits asmaller force to raise a given weight than if it were lifted directlyfrom the ground. For example,if a weight
of 1000 lb is to beraised vertically through a height BC of 3 ft without using aninclined plane,a force
of 1000 lb must be exerted over thatheight. However,with an inclined plane,the weight is movedover the longer distance of 8 ft,but a force
of only
3
 / 
8
of 1000or 375 lb would be required because the weight is moved througha longer distance. To determine the mechanical advantage of theinclined plane,the following formula is used:where height
h
ϭ
3 ft,length
l
ϭ
8 ft,sin
ϭ
0.375,and weight
ϭ
1000 lb.
ϭ
1000
ϫ
0.375
ϭ
375 lbMechanical advantage MA
ϭ
loadeffort
ϭ
ϭ
1000375
ϭ
2.7
ϭ
sin
u
sin
u
ϭ
height
h
length
l
PULLEY SYSTEMS
A single pulley simply changes the direction of a force so itsmechanical advantage is unity. However,considerable mechani-cal advantage can be gained by using a combination of pulleys.In the typical pulley system,shown in Fig. 3a,each block con-tains two pulleys or sheaves within a frame or shell. The upperblock is fixed and the lower block is attached to the load andmoves with it. A cable fastened at the end of the upper block passes around four pulleys before being returned to the operatoror other power source.Figure 3b shows the pulleys separated for clarity. To raise theload through a height
h
,each of the sections of the cable A,B,C,and D must be moved to a distance equal to
h
. The operatoror other power source must exert a force
through a distance
s
ϭ
4
h
so that the velocity ratio of 
s
to
h
is 4. Therefore,thethe-oretical mechanical advantage of the system shown is 4,corre-sponding to the four cables supporting the load
. The theoret-ical mechanical advantage TA for any pulley system similar tothat shown equals the number of parallel cables that support theload.
Fig.3
Four cables supporting the load of this pulleycombination give it a mechanical advantage of 4.

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