(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 11, No. 8, August 2013
than its value in other regions of the whole eye image, besideto that pupil represents the largest connected and packed dark area will appear in the eye image. So, to get the benefit of theseattributes the following steps were applied:
Step-1(Find a Seed Point):
This stage consists of two steps
In order to remove the effectof eye image artifacts, smoothing the eye image is produced by applying 21x21 mean filter.
Step1-2(Select a Seed Point):
A seed point in the pupilregion (i.e., a pixel that shows lowest gray value)corresponds to the minimum pixel value of the image produced from previous step. Sometimes the eyeimage may contain dark, thick eyebrows, so to preventthe pixels belong to these regions from being detectedas seed point the pixels belong the first 20% rows andthe last 20% rows of eye image are excluded fromseed point scanning domain. Also, the pixels belong tothe first 20% columns and last 20% columns areexcluded.
Step-2(Convert to Binary):
In order to detect the pupil region,the eye image is converted to binary. The proposedmethod implies two steps to get the binary image:
Contrast stretching isapplied again on the original eye image. Thestretching is done by the applying following steps:
Compute the mean (m) and standard deviation (σ)of the eye image.
Determine the Low and High values according tothe following equations:
(1)Where, is the scaling factor whose value iswithin the range [1..3].
Then, the contrast stretching is done by applyingthe following mapping equation:
Lif LowHighLowy)Img(x,255Lowy)Img(x, 0
(2)Where, E(x, y) is the enhanced image, Img(x, y)is the original image.Setting the scaling factor (
) equal 2, for allimages in databases, will made the pupil regionmore dark as shown in figure (2).
To guarantee accurateconversion of eye image a binary image; the gammatransform is applied on the enhanced image using thefollowing:
(3)Where, G(x,y) is gamma image, I(x,y) is input image,and
is gamma factor. The value of
determinesthe process type on the image. When
<1 thegamma image is darken the image, and for
>1 thegamma image is brighten the image. So, we havechoose
=0.3 to convert all iris images in databaseto binary.
a) original image (b) detected seed pointc) histogram stretching with
=2 (d) binary image using gamma transformFigure 2. Binary Iris Image
Step3 (Reflection Points Removing):
As shown from figure(2-a) the pupil region of CASIA V4.0 containsapproximately eight white points distributed in pupilregion. In order to remove reflection gamma transformwill used to detect the locations of these points by usinggamma scaling factor
=100. The detected points will be converting to black color in binary image that obtainfrom figure (2-d).
Step4 (Collect the Whole Black Round Area):
The pupilregion represents the largest connected and packed dark area will appear in the eye image. So, the seed fillingalgorithm is applied using the selected seed point thatfound in step1-2. The first step in this algorithm is tosave the seed point coordinates into temporary pointarray type, and then start checking its 4-neighboors, if any of the four tested points is found white then register it in the temporary array and convert the value of thedetected white point to black.
Step5 (Compute Pupil Center):
The pupil center (x
) iscomputed by taking the average of points in pupilregion in x-axis and y-axis directions according to thefollowing equations: Nn1iiyyp Nn1iixxp
(4)Where N is the number of points in pupil regions.
Step6 (Compute Pupil Radius):
From the point (x
), wemove in all four directions and find the first background pixel in each direction. Let x
be the first background pixel to the left and x
be the first background pixel tothe right. Radius is compute in horizontal R