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About Bali

About Bali

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This document is about Bali, from its history, people until the contact number you can used in Bali when you visit it.
This document is about Bali, from its history, people until the contact number you can used in Bali when you visit it.

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Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: Mohammad Jabbar Oxtaverdi on Jun 17, 2009
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07/29/2010

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Contact:
 
concord.jade@gmail.com
 
Yahoo
 
Messenger:
 
concord_jade@yahoo.com
 
Published
 
by
 
Mohammad
 
Jabbar
 
Oxtaverdi
 
Source:
 
http://gobalitravel.com/
 
Bali:
 
Islands
 
of 
 
God.
 
Gem
 
of 
 
Indonesia
 
The
 
following
 
article
 
is
 
about
 
Bali,
 
from
 
its
 
history
 
until
 
some
 
tips
 
to
 
go
 
there,
 
etc.
 
Hope
 
you
 
can
 
find
 
the
 
"Dangerously
 
Beautiful
 
of 
 
Indonesia".
 
Enjoy
 
reading..
 
Bali
 
History
 
Although there are no artifacts or records dating back to the Stone Age, it is believed that thefirst settlers on Bali migrated from China around 2500 B.C. By the Bronze era, around 300B.C.,a fairly evolved culture already existed on Bali. The complex system of irrigation and riceproduction, still in use today, was established around this time. It appears that the main religionaround 500 A.D. was predominantly Buddhist in influence. In 670 A.D., a Chinese scholar (Yi-Tsing), on a trip to India, reported that he had visited a Buddhist country called Bali. It wasn’tuntil the 11th century that Bali received the first strong influx of Hindu and Javanese cultures.With the death of his father around AD 1011, the Balinese Prince, Airlanggha, moved to EastJava and set about uniting it under one principality. Having succeeded, he then appointed hisbrother, Anak Wungsu, as ruler of Bali. During the ensuing period there was a reciprocation of political and artistic ideas. The old Javanese language, Kawi, became the language used by thearistocracy, one of the many Javanese traits and customs adopted by the cause.With the death of Airlanggha, in the middle of the 11th century, Bali enjoyed a period of autonomy. However, this proved to be short-lived, as in 1284 the East Javanese KingKertanegara, conquered Bali and ruled over it from Java. In 1292, Kertanegara was murderedand Bali took the opportunity to liberate itself once again. However, in 1343, Bali was broughtback under Javanese control by its defeat at the hands of Gajah Mada, a general in the last of great Hindu-Javanese empires, the Majapahit. With the spread of Islam throughout Sumatra andJava during the 16th century, the Majapahit empire began to collapse and a large exodus of aristocracy, priests, artists and artisans to Bali ensued. For awhile Bali flourished and thefollowing centuries were considered the Golden Age of Bali’ cultural history.
Bali
 
People
 
Life for the Balinese is very communal with the organisation of villages, farming and even thecreative arts being decided by the community. The local government is responsible for schools,clinics, hospitals and roads, but all other aspects of life are placed in the hands of two traditionalcommittees, whose roots in Balinese culture stretch back centuries. The first, Subak, concernsthe production of rice and organizes the complex irrigation system. Everyone who owns a sawah,or padi field, must join their local Subak, which then ensures that every member gets his fairdistribution of irrigation water. The other community organisation is the Banjar, which arrangesall village festivals, marriage ceremonies and cremations. Most villages have at least one Banjarand all males have to join one when they marry. Banjars, on average, have a membership of between 50 to 100 families and each Banjar has its own meeting place called the Bale Banjar. Aswell as being used for regular meetings, the Bale (Pavilion) is where the local gamelan orchestrasand drama groups practice.
 
Contact:
 
concord.jade@gmail.com
 
Yahoo
 
Messenger:
 
concord_jade@yahoo.com
 
Published
 
by
 
Mohammad
 
Jabbar
 
Oxtaverdi
 
Source:
 
http://gobalitravel.com/
 
Balinese grow up with speaking two related languages based on Malay. Balinese language isspoken in the homes and among the villages and the national language Bahasa Indonesia is usedexclusively. The Balinese have been more exposed to international tourists and generally speak more English than people in other parts of the Indonesian archipelago. They have managed topreserve their culture despite overwhelming foreign influences brought to the region by an everincreasing number of tourists.
Bali
 
Culture
 
Art and culture are strongly bonded to Bali's unique form of Hinduism called "Hindu Darma".Classical dance dramas for example, are based on the old Hindu epics of the Ramayana and theMahabarata, but contain an element of local folklore, perculiar to the island. The very soul of Bali is rooted in religion and is expressed in art forms that have been passionately preserved overthe centuries. It seems that almost every person is an artist, spending free time applying skillsand images which have been passed down from generation to generation and grasped from avery young age. Whether expressed through beautiful and intricate paintings and dances,extaordinary carvings, superb weaving or even in decorations made for myriad shrines which canbe found in public area, on roads, in paddy field or in homes, the island is alive with art.The Balinese have been more exposed to international tourists and generally speak more Englishthan people in other parts of the Indonesian archipelago. They have managed to preserve theirculture despite overwhelming foreign influences brought to the region by an ever increasingnumber of tourists.
Religion
 
Bali has approximately 3.5 million inhabitants of which probably 80% are Hindu Balinese. Theremaining having come from neighbouring islands of Java, Lombok and Madura in search of employment. Outside of India, Bali is the largest Hindu outpost in the world - the furthestreaches of the Hindu empire. In Bali, Hinduism has developed along lines of its own. In fact, themanner in which the Balinese practise their frontier Hinduism is still their greatest art. Althoughthe Balinese are Hindu and worship the Hindu trinity Brahma, Shiva and Vishnu, the Balinesereligion is very different from the Indian variety.The strong cultural identity of Bali is based on a combination of closely related elements such asthe unique religion, the language, the castes, the community life, the land cultivation and theexpression of its art. Of the four castes, Brahmana, Satria and Wesia represent 10% of thepopulation whereas the Sudras (the farmers and craftsmen) represent the great majority. Thecaste system, still very much alive today, regulates, apart from their religious power, the differentlevels of the Balinese language.The Balinese are an unusual island people in that they have never been sea faring people. Theybelieve that good spirits dwell in the mountains and that the seas are home to demons. Mostvillages have at least three main temples: one of which is the Pura Puseh or ‘temple of origin’, isdedicated to the village founders and which faces to Mt Agung - home to Pura Besakih themother temple on Bali. Together with the other two village temples each house may several
 
Contact:
 
concord.jade@gmail.com
 
Yahoo
 
Messenger:
 
concord_jade@yahoo.com
 
Published
 
by
 
Mohammad
 
Jabbar
 
Oxtaverdi
 
Source:
 
http://gobalitravel.com/
 
temples and as well as rice fields, markets etc. etc. etc. Now you can see why Bali is oftenreferred to as the Island of the Gods.The Balinese are extremely devout and no day goes by without making offerings to the gods.These daily offerings - called Banten are a major part of Balinese life. You will see theseofferings nearly everywhere in Bali. Made of flowers, cigarettes, cookies, rice and evensometimes money (the actual items used are not as important as the process of making andoffering it to the spirits) these offerings are given to the good spirits in hopes of continuedprosperity as well as to the evil spirits as an appeasement.
Dance
 
The lifestyles of Balinese people is expressed in their dance. Not only do we learn about theBalinese religion from their dance creations but also we can come to understand the flow of cultural events and activities that belong to everyday life. The very essence of the Balineseculture is dance and drama, which is performed during temple festivals and in ceremonies.Balinese dance goes as far back as Balinese written history with much of the heritage originatingfrom Java. Ironically, as a result of the Islamisation of Java, the Javanese culture has disappearedbut has still survived in Bali and has become part of classical Balinese culture.Balinese dance cannot be separated from religion. Even the dances for the tourists are precededby many dancers praying at their family shrine for taksu (inspiration) from the gods.Dance fulfils a number of specific functions: It may be a channel for visiting gods or demons, thedancers acting as a sort of living repository. It may be as a welcome for visiting gods. It may beentertainment for visiting gods.The following are brief descriptions of some of the better known dance-dreams that areperformed regularly on Bali.
Baris
 
A male equivalent of the Legong, Baris is a warrior's dance. Executed with energetic and warlikemartial spirit, the Baris dancer has to convey the thoughts and emotions of a warrior preparingfor action as well as confronting an enemy in battle. This dance is performed solo and requiresgreat energy, spirit and skill. The movements are dramatic. It is hard to distinguish whether it isthe dancer that follows the orchestra, or the other way around. You could say that they both gooff into their own dimensions, yet at certain well-defined times meet to create an astoundingtapestry. The dancers wear elaborate head decoration, from a gold-colored head band to leavesand strings of cempaka blossoms.
Barong
 
&
 
Rangda
 
This is basically a story about the struggle between good and evil. Good is personified by theBarong Keket, a strange, fun-loving creature in the shape of a shaggy semi-lion, and evil isrepresented by Rangda, a witch. Ultimately, the two characters engage in battle, at which point

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