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Job Enrichment Should Be Distinguished From Enlargement Job Enlargement Attempts to Make a Job More Varied by Removing the Dullness Associated With Performing Repetitive Operations

Job Enrichment Should Be Distinguished From Enlargement Job Enlargement Attempts to Make a Job More Varied by Removing the Dullness Associated With Performing Repetitive Operations

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Published by: Deepika verma on Jun 17, 2009
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Job Enrichment should be distinguished from enlargement job enlargement attempts to make a job morevaried by removing the dullness associated with performing repetitive operations. In job enrichment, theattempt is to build in to jobs a higher sense of challenge and achievement. The accumulation of achievement must lead to a felling of personal growth accompanied by a sense of responsibility.The goal of job enrichment is not merely to make the more varied but I the words of M.Scoot myersresearch for taxes investment, which has been experimenting with the techniques is to make everyemployee a manager ‘ . Thus the employee job is enriched will perform the management function of manning and controlling so far as his work is concerned.
Job enrichment should be distinguished from job enlargement. Job enlargement is aboutvariegating a job to divert the boredom associated with performing repetitive operations. Itmeans enlarging the scope of the job by adding similar tasks without enhancing responsibility.In job enrichment, the attempt is to build into jobs a higher sense of challenge andachievement. A job may be enriched by variety. But it also may be enriched by giving workersmore freedom in deciding about such things as work methods, sequence and pace or theacceptance or rejection of materials.Also encourage participation of subordinates and interaction between workers. Give workers afeeling of personal responsibility for their tasks. Taking steps to make sure that worker cansee how their tasks contribute to a finished product and the welfare of an enterprise. Finally,give people feedback on their job performance; preferably before their supervisors get it.But there are certain limitations as well of job enrichment. One of these is technology. Withspecialized machinery and assembly line techniques, it may not be possible to make all jobsvery meaningful. Another limitation is cost. There is also some question as to whetherworkers really want job enrichment, especially of the kind that changes the basic content of their jobs.
 
Job Enrichment vs. Job EnlargementJob enrichment
in organizational development, human resources management, and organizationalbehavior, is the process of giving an employee more responsibility and increased decision-makingauthority. This is the opposite of job enlargement, which does not give greater authority, just moreduties. [
Motivation and Work Behavior by Richard M. Steers and Lyman W. Porte, 1991; pgs 215m322m 357, 411-413, 423, 428-441 and pg 576.
]Job enlargement is often called "multi-tasking". This perhaps violates of one of the key principles of human achievement, namely, concentration of effort. [
 Andrew Carnegie, 1953; How not to Raise Your Own Salary; pp 235-244; Napoleon Hill and Annie Lou Norman Hill 
] One can perhaps manage and workon a variety of projects and still practice concentrated effort [
Attorney and American Writer NapoleonHill, 1979; 1995; The Law of Success; Chapter XI; pp 1 to pp77 Success Unlimited: A Division of W.Clement Stone
] , but multitasking is so out of hand that it often prevents an employee from gettinganything done.The current practice of job enrichment stemmed from the work of Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s and1960s. [
Feder 2000, Mione 2006
] Herzberg's two factor theory argued that job satisfaction and jobdissatisfaction are not to be seen as one dimension, but two. Aspects of work contributed to jobsatisfaction are called "motivators" and aspects that contributed to job dissatisfaction are called"hygiene factors"; hence, the theory is also refereed to as "motivator-hygiene theory". Examples of motivators are recognition, achievement, and advancement. Examples of hygiene factors are salary,company policies and working conditions. According to Herzberg's theory, the existence of motivatorswould lead to job satisfaction, but the lack of motivators would not lead to job dissatisfaction, andsimilarly; hygiene factors affect job dissatisfaction, but not job satisfaction. In general, research hasfailed to confirm these central aspects of the theory.Morgenson, Frederick P., & Campion, Michael A.(2003). Work Design. In W. C. Borman, D. R. Ilgen, & R.J. Klimoski (Eds.), "Handbook of Psychology",Vol. 12 (pp. 423-452). NJ: John Wiley & Sons.]Hackman and Oldham later refined the work of Herzberg into the Job Characteristics Model [
Hackman &Oldham 1976
] , which forms the basis of job enrichment today. (UTC) [
Mione 2006
]I/O in Ancient Times* Plato’s Republic** Created a taxonomy of citizens (e.g., guardians, auxiliaries, and workers)** Proposed ways to select and train members in each category* The Chinese** Developed a selection system for bureaucrats 3,000 years ago (lasted through 1905)** Multiple hurdle systemIn the United States, its origins are those of applied psychology in the early 19th Century, when thenation was experiencing tremendous industrialization, corporatization, unionization, immigration,urbanization and physical expansion. The field's founding fathers were Frederick W. Taylor, HugoMünsterberg (1863-1916), Walter Dill Scott (1869-1955), and Walter Van Dyke Bingham (1880-1952).As in other countries, wartime necessity (e.g., World War I and World War II) led to the discipline'ssubstantial growth. Business demand for scientific management, selection and training also haspromoted and sustained the field's development.For a detailed history of industrial and organizational psychology, particularly in the United States (butwith some discussion of developments in other countries), one can consult Koppes, L. L. (Ed.). (2007)."Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology". Mahwah, New Jersey: LawrenceErlbaum.For a concise history of Industrial/Organizational Psychology please visit[
http://www.mtsu.edu/~pmccarth/io_hist.htm History 
]

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