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Assignment on Water Policy of India

Assignment on Water Policy of India

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Published by Ashutosh
water policy of India 1987 and the comparison between water policies of India 2002 and 1987.
The critical analysis.
water policy of India 1987 and the comparison between water policies of India 2002 and 1987.
The critical analysis.

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Published by: Ashutosh on Jun 17, 2009
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08/28/2012

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Assignment on Water Policy of India
Introduction – 
Water is a precious natural resource which is the supreme need of the human as well as all theorganisms of this earth. It is in the continuous cycle and in total circulation form. With the space andtime it is uniformly distributed all over the earth and the other areas. The water cycle is called ashydrological cycle. Due to multiple uses it is very essential for the industrialization and the other development activities. About 70% of the earth is surrounded by water and within that 3% is the freshwater and within that fresh water only 1% is available to the human kind because maximum water isfrozen or in the from of glaciers they are un approachable to human need.
Need for a water policy
As per the reports out of the total precipitation, including snowfall, of around 4000 billion cubic metrein the country, the availability from surface water and replenishable ground water is put at 1869 billioncubic metres. Because of topographical and other constraints, about 60% of this i.e. 690 billion cubicmetres from surface water and 432 billion cubic metre from ground water, can be put to beneficial use.Availability of water is highly uneven in both space and time. Precipitation is confined to only aboutthree or four months in a year and varies from 100 millimeters in the western parts of Rajasthan toover 10000 milimetre at Cherrapunji in Meghalaya. Due to highly unevenness of the distribution of thewater the effective water policy was required. This has been discussed long back.With increasing population and practically little area available for extension of cultivation, India facesa tough challenge in the coming years in meeting the rising demand for food, livelihood and the exportopportunities made available by a more liberalized trading world. With the growth process and theexpansion of economic activities inevitably lead to increasing demands for water for diverse purposes:domestic, industrial, agricultural, hydropower, thermal-power, navigation, recreation the naturalresource like water started depleting at a very faster rate.
 
With the point keeping in mind to boost the quality of available water and to make it accessible to allwas the major demand. There is a large population which is living under a high water stress andconsuming very low quality water which is always be available from the unauthentic source. Thewater which is majority consume is through the wells or hand pumps or the tanks and all those sourcesare highly prone to contamination very fastly. The sharp increase lately in the demand of water isattributed to the unabated population growth and industrial development. Giving rise to serious neglectof traditional institutional laws of ethical management of water resources and neglect of arrangements resulting in increased pollution and dwindling of water supplies. This has brought theissue of policies and institutional management at the centre of water management issues in India. National Water Policy was adopted in September 1987. Since then, a number of issues and challengeshave emerged in the development and management of the water resources. Therefore, the NationalWater Policy (1987) has been reviewed and updated.
The old water policy of 1987
COMPARISON OF WATER POLICY 2002 AND 1987National Water Policy, 1987ADAPTED FROM MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES, NEW DELHI
 
Water Policy was adopted in September, 1987. Since then, a number of issues andchallenges have emerged in the development and management of the water resources. Therefore, theNational Water Policy (1987) has been reviewed and updated in 2002.The first paragraph in bold will have the policy of 2002 and the second paragraph will show the stateof the same in 1987.
2002- Water is a prime natural resource, a basic human need and a preciousnational asset. Planning and development of water resources need to be governed by nationalperspectives.
 
 2002- It has been estimated that out of the total precipitation of around 400 millionhectare meters in the country, the surface water availability is about 178 million hectaremeters. Out of this about 50% can be put to beneficial use because of topographical and otherconstraints. In addition there is a ground water potential of about 42 million hectare meters.The availability of water is highly uneven in both space and time. Precipitation is confined toonly about three or four months in the year and varies from 10 cm in the western parts ofRajasthan to over 1000 cm at Cherrapunji in Meghalaya. Further, water does not respectstate boundaries. Not merely rivers but even under ground aquifers often cut across stateboundaries. Water as a resource is one and indivisible: rainfall, river waters, surface pondsand lakes and ground water are all part of one system; water is a part of a larger ecologicalsystem.
1987- As per the latest assessment (1993), out of the total precipitation, including snowfall, of around4000 billion cubic metre in the country, the availability from surface water and replenishable ground water is put at 1869 billion cubic metre. Because of topographical and other constraints, about 60% of this i.e.690 billion cubic metre from surface water and 432 billion cubic metre from ground water, can be put to beneficial use. Availability of water is highly uneven in both space and time. Precipitation is confined toonly about three or four months in a year and varies from 100 mm in the western parts of Rajasthan to over 10000 mm at Cherrapunji in Meghalaya. Rivers and under ground aquifers often cut across state boundaries. Water, as a resource is one and indivisible: rainfall, river waters, surface ponds and lakes andground water are all part of one system.
 
Critical analysis- 1. The old date shows that the water can be retained and made into use is just50% about 178 million cubic metre, but in the new policy this figure has been changed to1089millioncubic metre and in order to glorify the figures and to make them appear moreappealing they have changed centimeter in to millimeter so 100 cm became 1000 mm.
2002- Floods and drought affect vast areas of the country, transcending state boundaries. Athird of the country is drought-prone. Floods affect an average area of around 9 millionhectares per year. According to the National Commission on floods, the area susceptible to

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