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Metamorphic Rocks Questions

Metamorphic Rocks Questions

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Published by karem87

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Published by: karem87 on Jun 17, 2009
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02/10/2011

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Metamorphism and Metamorphic Rocks – Chapter Questions
1.
 
**What are the agents of metamorphism?2.
 
**When metamorphic rocks form, what main factors dictate the rock that will form?3.
 
**Where does water in hydrothermal (chemically active) fluids come from?4.
 
Compare and contrast metamorphism, weathering/sediment lithification, and igneous rock formation.5.
 
**Be sure you understand the main textural changes that occur as metamorphic grade increases.
How does texture change as grade increases? Why?
Density increases (volume shrinks) Grains/crystals pack closer together under confining pressureFoliation increases Minerals align when under directed pressureCrystal size increases Grain boundaries migrate, enlarging crystal size as pressure(any kind) placed on crystal boundaries.6.
 
Distinguish among these types of foliation (ensure you know the definition of foliation and can recognizethese textures).
Grade Foliation type Description Picture
Low Rock or slatycleavageMicroscopic, aligned mica minerals. Planarcleavage. No visible minerals. Dense.Low tomedPhyllitic texture Mostly microscopic, aligned mica minerals.Only a few visible, isolated mineralspeeking out of satiny background.Foliation is undulating.Med tohighSchistosity Mostly visible biotite minerals allaligned, giving rock a scaly look, like afish. Foliation is undulating and fine. Somelarge porphyroblasts may peek out.High Gneissic texture All visible, interlocking crystals, separatedinto alternating dark- and light-coloredlayers.VeryhighMigmatitictextureGneissic texture where ½ melted, and thehigh temperatures caused folding of thelayers.7.
 
How and why do mineral compositions change as metamorphic grade increases?8.
 
**What is an index mineral?9.
 
Which of the minerals below are good index minerals? Poor?
General mineral grade stability
Low Medium High
-------------------------------------------------------------Quartz---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Feldspar-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Calcite---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Muscovite--------------------------------------------------------Biotite----------------------------------------------------------Garnet----------------------------------------------------------------Hornblende--------------------------------Pyroxene-----------------

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