Meaning Of Norm-Referencing
An individual perfomance in any psychological and eduational test is recorded interms of the raw scores. Raw scores are expressed in terms of different units, such as thenumber of trials taken within a specified period to reach a criterion; the number of correctresponses given by the examinees; the number of wrong responses given; the total time takenin assembling the objects; and the like. Usually, there are two reference points that areapplied in interpreting the test scores.The first way is to compare an examinee’s test score with the scores of a specificgroup of examinees on the test. This process is known as norm-referencing. When raw scoresare compared with the norms, a scientific meaning emerges. Norms may be defined as theaverage perfomance on a particular test made by a standardisation sample. By standardiastionsample is meant a sample which is the true representative of the population and takes the testfor the express purpose of providing data for comparison and subsequent interpretation of thetest scores. For adequate representation the sample must include a
representation of different part of the population. In order to compare the raw scores with the performance of the standardisation sample, they are converted into ‘
’. Thereare two reason, first the derived scores provide occasion for direct comparison of the person’sown performances on different test, because they are expressed in the same units for differenttest. Second, the derived scores denote the person’s relative position in the standardiastionsample.The second way of interpreting a test score is to establish an external standard of criteria and compare the examinee’s test scores with it. This way is called criterionreferencing. In a criterion-referenced test there is a fixed performance criterion. It means thecriterion result measured from the group of examinee which given training and beforetraining. If after training scores are better than the pretraining scores, the test can beconsidered as sensitive to the result or outcomes of the training. In other words, the testscores can be interpeted as an indication of increased skill or proficiency. There are threeimportant thing of criterion referenced test :
The test is usually based upon a set of behavioral referents, which it intends tomeasured.2.The test represents the samples of actual behaviour or performance.3.The performance on a criterion –referenced test can be explained in terms of predetermined cut-off scores.