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Technical Report

Technical Report

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Published by Zairi bin Zaini

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Published by: Zairi bin Zaini on Jun 17, 2009
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05/17/2011

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CHARACTERIZATION OF INORGANIC POLLUTANTS INURBAN DRAINAGE NETWORK 
 Zaini, Z.
1
Undergraduate student, Bachelor (Hons,) in Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti TeknologiMARA, Malaysia
ABSTRACT
The significant changes of hydrology and the land-use resulting from the rapid development in Malaysia,leads to the increase in the magnitude of stormwater events flow in downstream area and impact on land pollution thus for the water quality. Especially in urban area, the stormwater events will result to the potential of flooding, if the existing drainage systems fail to accommodate the discharge of thestormwater. The situation occurs mainly from a type of pollutants called sediments which accumulate intothe drainage system. It is a need to study about the characterization of inorganic pollutants (bed sediment)in urban drainage network with consideration of land development and season variations. The study wereconducted by using particle size distribution test to determine the type of sediment, composition, meansize and sorting characteristics in dry and wet season along small drainage area at hospital constructionsite, Section 7, Shah Alam. From the test, the results show that for both seasons, the bed sedimentclassified as very fine sand, with high composition of sand and silt, their mean size about 173.7294 µm to176.8763 µm, and the sorting characteristics as very poorly sorted.
Keyword:
inorganic pollutants, urban drainage, season variations, bed sediment characteristics, particlesize distribution
1INTRODUCTION
Rapid urbanization in Malaysia lead to significant changes to the hydrology and land-usewith the most obvious effect being the increase in the magnitude of stormwater events flow indownstream area and impact on flooding and water quality.With the climatic condition of uniform temperature, high humidity, copious rainfall andarise mainly from the maritime exposure, the effect of land and sea breezes on the general windflow pattern determine the rainfall distribution patterns over the country. During monsoonseason, some of the places will experiences heavy rain spells. Especially in urban area, this willresult to the flash flood, because the inability of existing drainage system to accommodate thedischarge of stormwater (Malaysian Meteorological Department, 2008).This situation occurs as the drain becomes shallower resulting from some impurityaccumulated into the system. This is called as pollutant. Gross pollutants such as litter andsediments will cause pollution and therefore reduce water quality (Lambe Littlejohn, 1989).The sediment is affected from land-use which commonly accelerates soil erosion and cangreatly affect into streams which is also receive surrounding runoff. The most visually strikingimpacts to streams are simply a consequence of the sediments presence in the water, such,greater turbidity and decreased transparency, and in extreme cases, zones of deposition and flowdiversion (Edwards, 1969).Where sediment is a pollutant, the study is conducted to determine the characteristic of the inorganic pollutants in urban drainage network which deals with the effect of the landdevelopment and with respect to the season variations. This is deal to characterize the bedsediments in term of the type, composition, mean size and sorting characteristics.
 
2RESEARCH METHODOLOGY2.1Samples Preparation
Samples of sediments were taken in a small drainage area at hospital’s construction site atSection 7, Shah Alam, Selangor.The samples include ten (10) samples of sediment and a sample of soil was taken duringthe dry season, which is at 22 July 2008 where there was no raining at that week and no water inthe drain. For the wet season data, another ten samples of sediment were collected on 14 October 2008, where there was a raining season at that week and with drain containing water.The purpose of soil being taken was to determine whether the soil at the uppermoststream were eroded and transformed into sediment in the rain by comparing the type of that soiland the sediment samples in the drain.The sample were collected in every 10 metres interval along the drain beginning at theuppermost stream near the soil sample was taken. The point of sample to be collected weremeasured by the tape so that the same point of sediment samples can be identified for both dryand wet season sampling.
2.2Testing the Sample
The samples taken from study area then were test in the laboratory. The test includes the particle size distribution test (sieve analysis and Hydrometer analysis).
2.2.1Sieve Analysis
Sieve analysis is a method where sample of soil is separated on sieves of different sizes.Thus, sieve analysis of the particle size distribution is defined in terms of discrete size rangessuch the percentage of sample between the sizes of the sieves used (Wikipedia, 2008).The apparatus consists of different sieve size ranging from 75 mm to 0.063 mm andreceivers (pan), a balance, simple dividers, drying oven, sieve brushes and mechanical sieveshaker (BBB, 2005). An illustration of instrumental is as follows (Figure 2.1):
 
Figure 2.1: Sieve analysis instrument
The objective of the test is to determine the amount and distribution of the particle size of the sediment greater than 0.063 mm in diameter. Where the sediment samples contain fine-grained particles, a wet sieving procedure was first carried out to remove these and to determinethe combined clay/silt fraction percentage. A suitable sized sub-sample was first oven dried andthen sieve to separate the coarsest particles (>20 mm). The mass retained will be taken (RoyWhitlow, 2004).In a wet sieving process a vessel was used that has a sieving screen as a false bottom. Thevessel was filled up to a predetermined level with water which also containing a dispersing agent(sodium hexametaphosphate, 2g per litre of water) about 4 hours to facilitate the dispersion of sediment particles. Then the sub-sample about 600g was immersed into the water. Fine solids arethen washed through a 63 µm screen with the addition of further water until essentially clear water passes through the screen (Figure 2.2). The passed fraction will be used for theHydrometer test. The retained fraction was again oven-dried and the dry sieving was made for that fraction (Roy Whitlow, 2004).
Figure 2.2: Wet sieving analysis
In dry sieving method the sediment was being dried into the oven basically about a day. Normally, for dry sieve test, the sieve size between 0.063 mm to 5 mm was used. The samplethen is being shaking about 15 minutes to cause the soil particles to fall through the sieves untilthey are retained on a particular sieve. After shaking, the mass of soil retained on each sample isdetermined (Roy Whitlow, 2004).

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