What is Metacognition 3
most basic mental states-desires, percepts, beliefs, knowledge, thoughts,intentions, feelings, and so on. The researchers attempted to find out whatchildren know about the existence and behavior of the states of the mindand also what children know about how mental states affects the perceptualinputs, behavioral outputs, and other mental states (Flavell, 1999).Therefore, based on extensive research Flavell (1983) explained “What ismetacognition? It has usually been broadly and rather loosely defined as anyknowledge or cognitive activity that takes as its object, or regulates, anyaspect of any cognitive enterprise (e.g., Flavell, 1981A); it is, again,"cognition about cognition" (p. 6).According to Flavell (1983, 1999), metacognition consists of bothmetacognitive knowledge and metacognitive experiences. Metacognitiveknowledge refers to acquired declarative and procedural knowledge aboutcognitive processes and can be used to monitor cognitive processes. “It isthe knowledge and beliefs, accumulated through experience and stored inlong-term memory, that concern, not politics or football or electronics orneedlepoint or some other domain, but the human mind and its doings” (Flavell, 1983, p. 7). For example, knowing that you have poor memory,youwill use an aid such as shopping list to remind you what you need to buyin the supermarket. Metacognitive experiences “…are cognitive or affectiveexperiences that pertain to a cognitive enterprise, such as the sudden feelingthat you do not understand something you just read” (Flavell, 1983, p. 7).