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Internal combustion engine - IC engines

Internal combustion engine - IC engines

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Published by Nuumero uno
power plant engineering lab manual, internal combustion engines, two stroke four stroke engines
power plant engineering lab manual, internal combustion engines, two stroke four stroke engines

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Published by: Nuumero uno on Sep 04, 2013
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12/11/2013

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EXPERIMENT NO: DATE:STUDY OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINESOBJECTIVES:
At the end of this experiment students are able to know
About heat engine
Various components of IC engine & its functions
Basic nomenclature of IC engine
Application of IC engine.
Theory:
In general, an engine is defined as a device, which converts one form of energy into mechanicalwork. Heat engine is a device, which transforms heat energy into mechanical work.Transformation of one form of energy into another required form is always associated withlosses. Therefore efficiency of conversion plays an important role. In every heat engine, someform of fuel (solid, liquid, gas or nuclear) is used. The chemical energy of fuel is converted intothermal or heat energy & that is further used to perform useful work.Heat engines are mainly classified as
External Combustion Engines. (E.C.engine)
Internal Combustion Engines. (I.C.engine)In E. C. engine as name suggest its combustion process takes place outside of the prime mover (power producing machine). In E.C. engine working fluid is not mixed with fuel, therefore, thesame working fluid is used again & again. Steam engine / Steam turbine falls under thiscategory.In I.C. engine, fuel is mixed with the air & burned, the combustion of fuel takes place inside theengine cylinder and power is produced. These types of engines are used in trucks & buses,scooters & cars, ships & locomotives, agricultural & earth moving machinery, many industrialapplications & for power generation.
Various components of I C Engine:
Depending upon the design & application, one I.C.engine may be different from the other I.C.engine, as regards its size, shape & dimensions. But it becomes necessary to understand the purpose of various components for complete understanding of I.C.engine. So now we shalldiscuss the purpose of main components of I.C.engines (Refer figure 1).
Frame:
It generally consists of base plate, crankcase. This serves as a tool to mount engine anddifferent systems of engine. It is skeleton of an automobile. It also supports different moving parts. The base plates are rigidly fixed to the foundation of the floor. The lower part of crankcasecontains oil for lubrication purpose.
Cylinder and Cylinder Block:
Single cylinder engine has a single cylinder block. Multicylinder engine has no. of cylinder blocks as per type of engine (i. e. four cylinder engine, sixcylinder engine etc.) which contains cylinder bores and openings for the valves. To avoid wear and tear of cylinder block surface, cylinder liners are provided. It may contain passage for flowof cooling water in case of water cooling and fins on its outer surface to enhance cooling in caseof air cooling. The cylinder of I.C.engine is considered as main body of the engine in which piston reciprocates to develop power. It has to withstand very high pressure and temperature
 
(about 2200
o
C) because there is direct combustion inside the cylinder. Due to this its materialshould be such that it can retain strength at high temperature, should be good conductor of heatand should resist to rapid wear and tear due to reciprocating parts. Generally ordinary cast iron isused, but in case of heavy duty engines, alloy steels are used. Sometimes, when engine blocksare heavy & for easy maintenance sleeves or liners are inserted into cylinder, which can bereplaced when worn out Liners, are generally made of nickel chrome iron.
Cylinder head:
The cylinder head closes one end of cylinder. It houses inlet and exhaust valvesthrough which charge is taken inside the cylinder and burned gases are exhausted to atmospherefrom the cylinder. Cylinder head is usually cast as one piece and bolted to the top of the cylinder.Copper and asbestos gaskets are provided between the cylinder & cylinder head to obtain a gastight joint. The material used for cylinder head is also cast iron. Like cylinder block it alsoconsists of water jackets and or fins for cooling purpose.
Water jacket:
The jackets are the integral opening/passage provided around the cylinder &other hot spots through which water is passed for cooling the engine.
Piston & Piston Rings:
The functions of piston are to compress the charge during compressionstroke and to transmit the gas force to the connecting rod and then to the crank during power stroke. The piston of I.C.engines is made of cast iron, cast steel and aluminum alloy. Thealuminum alloy has the advantage of higher thermal conductivity and lower specific gravity.Piston is the heart of the engine.
The piston rings:
These are housed in the circumferential grooves provided on the outer surfaceof the piston. It gives gas tight fitting between piston and cylinder prevents the leakage of high pressure gases. These are made of special grade cast iron. This material retains its elastic property at very high temperature. The upper piston rings are called the compression rings andthe lower piston rings are called the oiling or oil control ring (oil scrapper rings).
Piston pin or wrist pin:
Piston pin connects the piston and small end of connecting rod. It provides the bearing for the oscillating small end of connecting rod.
Connecting rod:
It is usually a steel forging of circular, rectangular, I, T or H section (GenerallyI section) and is highly polished for increased endurance strength. Its small end forms a hingeand pin joint with piston and its big end is connected to crank by crank pin. It has a passage for the transfer of lubricating oil from the big end bearing to small end bearing (gudgeon pin).
Crank & Crank shaft:
Both crank and crankshafts are steel forged and machined to a smoothfinish. These are held together by means of a key. Crankshaft is supported in main bearings andhas a heavy wheel called flywheel, to even out the fluctuation of torque. The power required for any useful purpose is taken from crankshaft only. The crankshaft is the backbone of the engine.
Camshaft:
The function of the camshaft is to operate the intake and exhaust valves through thecams, cam followers, push rods and rocker arms. The camshaft is driven positively from thecrankshaft at half speed of the crankshaft.
Cam & Cam follower:
It gives the desired motion to the valves through the follower.
 
Push rod and Rocker arm:
The motion of cam is transmitted to the valve through push rod androcker arm. These links together are also known as valve gear.
Inlet valve:
It controls the admission of charge into the petrol engine or air into diesel engineduring suction stroke of the engine.
Exhaust valve:
It allows exhaust of cylinder gases after doing work on piston.
Valve spring:
Valves are kept closed by the valve spring (compression spring).
Inlet manifold
: It is the passage, which carries the charge from carburetor to the petrol engine. Itconnects all the inlet valves in case of multi-cylinder engine to the carburetor.
Exhaust manifold:
It is the passage, which carries the exhaust gases from the exhaust valve incase of single cylinder engine or exhaust valves in case of multicylinder engines, to theatmosphere.
Crankcase:
It is the base, which holds the cylinder and crankshaft. It also serves as sump for lubricating oil.
Flywheel:
It is a wheel mounted on the crankshaft, which stores excess energy during power stroke and returns that energy during other strokes and maintains a fairly constant output torqueon the crankshaft.
Governor:
It is run by a drive from the crankshaft. The function of governor is to regulatecharge in case of petrol engine and amount of fuel in case of diesel engine to maintain the speedof the engine constant, when the load requirement varies.
Carburetor:
The function of carburetor is to supply the uniform air fuel to the cylinder of a petrol engine through the intake manifold. A throttle valve controls the mass of mixture enteringthe cylinder.
Spark plug:
To ignite the compressed charge in petrol engine.
Fuel pump:
It forces fuel oil at high pressure through fuel nozzle into the cylinder at the end of compression stroke in diesel engine.
Fuel nozzle:
The function of fuel nozzle is to break up the oil into a fine spray as it enters thecylinder of diesel engine.

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