EXPERIMENT NO: DATE:STUDY OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINESOBJECTIVES:
At the end of this experiment students are able to know
About heat engine
Various components of IC engine & its functions
Basic nomenclature of IC engine
Application of IC engine.
In general, an engine is defined as a device, which converts one form of energy into mechanicalwork. Heat engine is a device, which transforms heat energy into mechanical work.Transformation of one form of energy into another required form is always associated withlosses. Therefore efficiency of conversion plays an important role. In every heat engine, someform of fuel (solid, liquid, gas or nuclear) is used. The chemical energy of fuel is converted intothermal or heat energy & that is further used to perform useful work.Heat engines are mainly classified as
External Combustion Engines. (E.C.engine)
Internal Combustion Engines. (I.C.engine)In E. C. engine as name suggest its combustion process takes place outside of the prime mover (power producing machine). In E.C. engine working fluid is not mixed with fuel, therefore, thesame working fluid is used again & again. Steam engine / Steam turbine falls under thiscategory.In I.C. engine, fuel is mixed with the air & burned, the combustion of fuel takes place inside theengine cylinder and power is produced. These types of engines are used in trucks & buses,scooters & cars, ships & locomotives, agricultural & earth moving machinery, many industrialapplications & for power generation.
Various components of I C Engine:
Depending upon the design & application, one I.C.engine may be different from the other I.C.engine, as regards its size, shape & dimensions. But it becomes necessary to understand the purpose of various components for complete understanding of I.C.engine. So now we shalldiscuss the purpose of main components of I.C.engines (Refer figure 1).
It generally consists of base plate, crankcase. This serves as a tool to mount engine anddifferent systems of engine. It is skeleton of an automobile. It also supports different moving parts. The base plates are rigidly fixed to the foundation of the floor. The lower part of crankcasecontains oil for lubrication purpose.
Cylinder and Cylinder Block:
Single cylinder engine has a single cylinder block. Multicylinder engine has no. of cylinder blocks as per type of engine (i. e. four cylinder engine, sixcylinder engine etc.) which contains cylinder bores and openings for the valves. To avoid wear and tear of cylinder block surface, cylinder liners are provided. It may contain passage for flowof cooling water in case of water cooling and fins on its outer surface to enhance cooling in caseof air cooling. The cylinder of I.C.engine is considered as main body of the engine in which piston reciprocates to develop power. It has to withstand very high pressure and temperature