STUDY OF TWO STROKE I.C.ENGINESOBJECTIVES:
After studying this practical, students are able to know
Principles, construction & working of 2-S Petrol & Diesel engine.
In this engine, the working cycle is completed in two strokes of the piston or onerevolution of the crankshaft.In case of two strokes engines, the valves are replaced by ports. Two rows of ports atdifferent levels are cut in the cylinder walls as shown in fig. These are known as exhaust ports and transfer ports. In the case of single cylinder engines, a third row of ports is provided below the first two and these are known as inlet ports.A specific shape is given to the piston crown as shown in fig which helps to prevent lossof incoming fresh charge entering into the engine cylinder through the transfer port andhelps in exhausting only burnt gases.The charging of cylinder with air fuel mixture in case of petrol engine or with air in caseof diesel engine, compression of the mixture or air, expansion of gases and exhausting of the burnt gases from the cylinder are carried out in two strokes. This can be done usingfollowing two methods.By using closed crank case compression. In this method crank case works as an air pumpas the piston moves up and down. The charge or air to be admitted in the cylinder iscompressed in crankcase by the pumping action of underside of piston. This method isknown as three channel system & used for single cylinder small power engines likescooters & motorcycles.A separate pump outside the cylinder is provided to compress the charge or air beforeforcing it into the cylinder. This pump is an integral part of an engine & driven by engineit self. This method of charging is used for large capacity multi-cylinder engine.
Working of 2- stroke petrol engine
:It will be easier to describe the cycle beginning at the point when the piston hasreached to TDC completing the compression stroke.The position of the piston at the end of compression as shown in fig. The spark is produced by spark plug as the piston reaches the TDC (Top Dead Centre). The pressureand temperature of the gases increases and the gases push the piston downwards producing power stroke, when the piston downwards producing power stroke. When the piston uncovers (opens) the exhaust port as shown in fig, during downward stroke, theexpanded burnt gases leave the cylinder through the exhaust port. A little later, the pistonuncovers (opens) the transfer port also as shown in fig. In this condition the crankcase isdirectly connected to cylinder through port. During the downward stroke of piston, thecharge in crankcase is compressed by the underside of the piston to a pressure of 1-4 bar.