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Gear & Gear Train - Theory of Machines

Gear & Gear Train - Theory of Machines

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Published by Nuumero uno
Theory of Machines Lecture Notes 8.
Theory of Machines Lecture Notes 8.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Nuumero uno on Sep 04, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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a) Spur gear :- 
Spur gears have their teeth parallel to the axis and are used for transmittingpower between two parallel shafts. They are simple in construction, easy to manufacture and costless. They have highest efficiency and excellent precision rating. They are used in high speed andhigh load application in all types of trains and a wide range of velocity ratios. Hence, they findwide applications right from clocks, household gadgets, motor cycles, automobiles, and railwaysto aircrafts.
b) Helical Gear :- 
Helical gears are used for parallel shaft drives. They have teeth inclined to theaxis as shown in Fig. Hence for the same width, their teeth are longer than spur gears and havehigher load carrying capacity. Their contact ratio is higher than spur gears and they operatesmoother and quieter than spur gears. Their precision rating is good. They are recommended for very high speeds and loads. Thus, these gears find wide applications in automotive gearboxes.Their efficiency is slightly lower than spur gears.
c) Bevel Gar :- 
Straight bevel gears are used for transmitting power between intersecting shafts.They can operate under high speeds and high loads. Their precision rating is fair to good. Theyare suitable for 1:1 and higher velocity ratios and for right-angle meshes to any other angles.Their good choice is for right angle drive of particularly low ratios. However, complicated both formand fabrication limits achievement of precision. They should be located at one of the less criticalmeshes of the train. Wide application of the straight bevel drives is in automotive differentials,right angle drives of blenders and conveyors.
Theory of Machine (1MEB25) Prepared By : Prof. Jignesh Dangi
d) Worm & worm gear :- 
Worm and worm gear pair consists of a worm, which is very similar toa screw and a worm gear, which is a helical gear as shown in Fig. They are used in right-angleskew shafts. In these gears, the engagement occurs without any shock. The sliding actionprevalent in the system while resulting in quieter operation produces considerable frictional heat.High reduction ratios 8 to 400 are possible. Efficiency of these gears is low anywhere from 90% to40 %. Higher speed ratio gears are non-reversible. Their precision rating is fair to good. Theyneed good lubrication for heat dissipation and for improving the efficiency. The drives are verycompact. Worm gearing finds wide application in material handling and transportation machinery,machine tools, automobiles etc.
e) Rack & pinion :- 
Rack is a segment of a gear of infinite diameter. The tooth can be spur or helical. This type of gearing is used for converting rotary motion into translatory motion or visaversa.
Theory of Machine (1MEB25) Prepared By : Prof. Jignesh Dangi
GEAR TERMINOLOGY :Pitch Circle or Pitch Curve
It is the theoretical curve along which the gear rolls without slipping on the correspondingpitch curve of other gear for transmitting equivalent motion.
Pitch Point
It is the point of contact of two pitch circles.
Circular Pitch
It is the distance along the pitch circle circumference between the corresponding points on theconsecutive teeth.If d is diameter of the pitch circle and ‘T’ be number of teeth, the circular pitch (p
) is given byPc = ll X d / T
Diamental Pitch
It is defined as the number of teeth per unit length of the pitch circle diameter. Therefore,diamental pitch (p
) can be expressed asPd = T / d
It is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter to the number of teeth. Therefore, the module (m) canbe expressed asM = d / T
Addendum Circle and Addendum
It is the circle passing through the tips of gear teeth and addendum is the radial distancebetween pitch circle and the addendum circle.
Dedendum Circle
and Dedendum
It is the circle passing through the roots of the teeth and the dedendum is the radial distancebetween root circle and pitch circle.
Full Depth of Teeth and Working Depth
Full depth is sum of addendum and dedendum and working depth is sum of addendums of the two gears which are in mesh.
Tooth Thickness and Space Width
Tooth thickness is the thickness of tooth measured along the pitch circle and space width isthe space between two consecutive teeth measured along the pitch circle. They are equal to
Theory of Machine (1MEB25) Prepared By : Prof. Jignesh Dangi

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