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In 1905, 5 year after ICM1900 Hilbert's lecture [1], Einstein creates a paradigm shift in Newton's Mechanics by developing STR [2]. In 1933 Kolmogorov formally defines the foundations of Probability Theory [7] but Distinction is not its first-order property. By Non-locality\Locality Bridging Distinction is a first-order property of the language of Mathematics. As a result Uncertainty and Redundancy are first-order properties of Probability Theory that now has to deal with superposition of identities as inseparable part of it (similarly to the extension to the Partition function Pr(n) as demonstrated in pages 6, 7). A line and a point are the geometrical aspects of Locality and Non-locality, but Locality and Non-locality can be also shown in Logic where the logical connective is the non-local aspect of Logic, and a proposition is the local aspect of Logic. Locality and Non-locality are also shown in Arithmetic where the arithmetical operation is its non-local aspect, and a number is its local aspect (also we observed Non-locality\Locality Bridging as the basis of the concept of Number). Further development of Organic Mathematics unifies Mathematics, as appears in D.Hilbert's [1] and L.Lovasaz's [7] visions, by simply using Non-locality\Locality Bridging as the common base ground of this science.

[1] Hilbert David: Mathematical Problems, Bulletin of The American

Mathematical Society, Volume 37. Number 4, Pages 407-436, S 0273-

0979(00)00881-8

[2] Einstein Albert: On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, Annalen der Physik,

17:891, June 30, 1905 (English translation by W. Perrett and G.B. Jeffery).

[7] L. Lovasz: One Mathematics http://www.cs.elte.hu/~lovasz/berlin.pdf .

[1] Hilbert David: Mathematical Problems, Bulletin of The American

Mathematical Society, Volume 37. Number 4, Pages 407-436, S 0273-

0979(00)00881-8

[2] Einstein Albert: On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, Annalen der Physik,

17:891, June 30, 1905 (English translation by W. Perrett and G.B. Jeffery).

[7] L. Lovasz: One Mathematics http://www.cs.elte.hu/~lovasz/berlin.pdf .

In 1905, 5 year after ICM1900 Hilbert's lecture [1], Einstein creates a paradigm shift in Newton's Mechanics by developing STR [2]. In 1933 Kolmogorov formally defines the foundations of Probability Theory [7] but Distinction is not its first-order property. By Non-locality\Locality Bridging Distinction is a first-order property of the language of Mathematics. As a result Uncertainty and Redundancy are first-order properties of Probability Theory that now has to deal with superposition of identities as inseparable part of it (similarly to the extension to the Partition function Pr(n) as demonstrated in pages 6, 7). A line and a point are the geometrical aspects of Locality and Non-locality, but Locality and Non-locality can be also shown in Logic where the logical connective is the non-local aspect of Logic, and a proposition is the local aspect of Logic. Locality and Non-locality are also shown in Arithmetic where the arithmetical operation is its non-local aspect, and a number is its local aspect (also we observed Non-locality\Locality Bridging as the basis of the concept of Number). Further development of Organic Mathematics unifies Mathematics, as appears in D.Hilbert's [1] and L.Lovasaz's [7] visions, by simply using Non-locality\Locality Bridging as the common base ground of this science.

[1] Hilbert David: Mathematical Problems, Bulletin of The American

Mathematical Society, Volume 37. Number 4, Pages 407-436, S 0273-

0979(00)00881-8

[2] Einstein Albert: On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, Annalen der Physik,

17:891, June 30, 1905 (English translation by W. Perrett and G.B. Jeffery).

[7] L. Lovasz: One Mathematics http://www.cs.elte.hu/~lovasz/berlin.pdf .

[1] Hilbert David: Mathematical Problems, Bulletin of The American

Mathematical Society, Volume 37. Number 4, Pages 407-436, S 0273-

0979(00)00881-8

[2] Einstein Albert: On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, Annalen der Physik,

17:891, June 30, 1905 (English translation by W. Perrett and G.B. Jeffery).

[7] L. Lovasz: One Mathematics http://www.cs.elte.hu/~lovasz/berlin.pdf .

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Organic Mathematics

(A Non-formal Introduction)

Doron Shadmishadmi_doron@yahoo.com

, Moshe Klein gan_adam@netvision.net.il

Keywords:

Continuous, Discrete, Distinction, Organic Thinking, Non-locality, Locality

6. Mathematical treatment of the axioms of physics"The investigations on the foundations of geometry suggest the problem: To treat in the same manner, by means of axioms, those physical sciences in whichmathematics plays an important part; in the first rank are the theory of probabilities and mechanics. A

s to the axioms of the theory of probabilities, it seems to me desirable that their logical investigation should be accompanied by arigorous and satisfactory development of the method of mean values inmathematical physics, and in particular in the kinetic theory of gases."( David Hilbert ICM 1900 Paris)

[1]

1. Introduction

The 6

th

problem of Hilbert is about the connection between Mathematics and Physic.In 1905 Einstein creates a revolution in Mechanics by developing SRT [2]. During 1933Kolmogorov establishes the foundations of Probability Theory [3]. In 1935 the EPRthought experiment was published [4]. Bell's Inequality (1964) [5] was checked by AlainAspect during 1981 [6]. This brings us to understand the importance of Non-locality inour Universe. In his paper "

One Mathematics

" [7] L.Lovasz wrote that by defining thebridge between Continues and Discreet Mathematics we may avoid dis-communicationbetween different mathematical branches, which enables to define the unity of thisscience.Organic Mathematics (OM) is based on the assumption that a point and a line are twoindependent ur-elements that represent also two different ways of thinking: Parallel andSerial. Parallel thinking is observed from the non-local aspect of a line with respect to apoint (a line belongs AND does not belong to a point), and serial thinking is observedfrom the local aspect of a point with respect to a line (a point belongs XOR does notbelong to a line), where in both cases a point and a line are mutually independent exactlylike two axioms that are not derived from each other. According to OM the concept of Number is the Bridging between Locality and Non-locality, where

Bridging is anyinteraction between mutually independent things

(see pages 15-17). For example, theOrganic Numbers (their introduction in this article is based on partial example) are anextension to the Partition function

Pr(n)

(see pages 6,7), where Distinction is theiressential property. The Organic Numbers in that article are nothing but a partial exampleof strict observation of Non-locality\Locality Bridging (In the next pages we exploreDistinction as an essential property of Organic Numbers). If a line and a point aremutually independent ur-elements, then the result of their Bridging has at least 3 essentialproperties: Magnitude, Distinction, Order.

2

A point is the ur-element that provides the maximum accuracy for Locality, byminimal expression under Bridging. A line is the ur-element that provides the maximumaccuracy for Non-Locality, by minimal expression under Bridging. If a point and a lineare not bridged, then their properties as Locality (a point) or Non-locality (a line) are notexpressed and therefore not researchable. By OM,

Cardinality or Magnitude is themeasurement unit of the existence of a thing

.a) The magnitude of Emptiness(=0) has no predecessor.b) The magnitude of a Fullness(=

∞

) has no successor.

Axiom 1:

Any magnitude

x

is the result of the Bridging between 0 and

∞

magnitudes.By

axiom 1

,

x

has a predecessor AND a successor.By the standard paradigm (ZF) we have two basic states, which are:c) The Empty set , where by

axiom 1

it is the minimal object that has predecessor ANDsuccessor.d) A non-empty set, where by

axiom 1

it is any non-minimal object that has predecessorAND successor.Both (a) and (b) have no members and they are distinguished from each other by theiropposite cardinalities. Furthermore, by OM, since (a) and (b) are atoms they are notderived from each other, and can be used as two mutually independent states (similarly totwo axioms) that if bridged with each other, they define (c)(d). By OM, (c)(d) is

theresult

of (a)(b) Bridging, such that card(a) < card(c) < card(d) < card(b).

2. Cardinality Sets and Categories

Let

X

be a placeholder for any thinkable thing.

X

can be measured by using Set as ameasurement tool, where Cardinality is the measurement unit. For example, the ZFaxiom of the Empty Set states that: "

There exists set A such that any set (including A) isnot a member of A

". By OM this axiom is understood as follows: "

There exists set A

"means that if set

A

is measured as a member of some set, for example

B

={

A

}, then thecardinality of

B

is at least 1. We do not measure here the cardinality of the members of set

A

, but we measure here the cardinality of the members of set

B

, and by doing that wedefine the measurement unit of the existence of member

A

, which is not less thancardinality 1. If we generalize it to "

There exists set

", then the magnitude of the existenceof a Set is at least 1. Following the same reasoning, the magnitude of the existence of Emptiness is 0, where the magnitude of the existence of its opposite, called Fullness, is

∞

. In each one of these examples, Set is used to measure the magnitude of the existenceof

X

(for further reading, please see Appendix page 25).In the case of the Empty set,

X

is the absence of members. In the case of the Full set,

X

is stronger than any member. "

X is stronger than any member

" is what OM callsRelation, known as "Membership" by Set Theory or "Morphisms" by Category Theory.In both theories Collection is

the result

of Relation Element Interaction (REI), where thecardinality (the magnitude of the existence) of this

result

is > 0 and <

∞

.

3

The magnitude of the existence of a given set is not determined by its members if these "members" are Emptiness or Fullness. Emptiness or Fullness are not researchabledirectly, because Emptiness' existence on its own is too weak, and Fullness' existence onits own is too strong. For example, The Empty Set is not itself Emptiness but it is anexisting thing that is used to define the Cardinality of Emptiness, where Emptiness'"existence" itself is weaker than any existing thing. Also the Full Set (the opposite of theEmpty set) is not itself Fullness but it is an existing thing that is used to define theCardinality of Fullness, where Fullness' "existence" itself is stronger than any existingthing.In that case the concept of Set has a magnitude of existence that is stronger than 0 (themagnitude of the "existence" of Emptiness that can be defined only indirectly by using anexisting and researchable thing like Set) and weaker than

∞

(the magnitude of the"existence" of Fullness that can be defined only indirectly by using an existing andresearchable thing like Set). By getting the notion of the extreme non-researchable states(Emptiness or Fullness on their own) one defines the general concept of Collection,where its magnitude of existence is stronger than Emptiness on its own and weaker thanFullness on its own.If we generalize Sets or Categories by these notions, then Memberships (Set) orMorphisms (Category) magnitude of existence are weaker than Fullness on its own andstronger than Members (Set) or Objects, where Members (Set) or Objects (Category)magnitude of existence are stronger than Emptiness on its own and weaker thanMemberships (Set) or Morphisms (Category). If Memberships or Morphisms are Relationand Members or Objects are Element, then the magnitude of existence of a non-emptycollection is determined by the amount of its Elements, gathered by Relation. In orderto distinguish between the researchable and the non-researchable, let us symbolize it asfollows:Emptiness on its own is represented by the background of this page.Fullness on its own is represented by the opposite background of this page.Relation is represented as _Element is represented as •Interaction (Bridging) between Relation and Element is represented as |

3. Distinction

OM's [0,

∞

] universe uses Distinction as an essential property of Organic Numbers, inaddition to Cardinality and Ordinality. It is possible because (c)(d) are the result of (a)(b)Bridging. If (c) is represented by • and (b) is represented by _ where (c)(b) are atoms, and(c)(b) Bridging is represented by | , then any (d) is the result of •|_ as follows:Let us research card(b)=3

Fig. 1

As can be seen, we have more than a one state of Distinction, the most left is asuperposition of 3 possible identities, where the most right is 3 strict identities (where theconcept of Set is based on this particular Distinction (where order has no significance)).Let us call (c) Locality and (b) Non-locality where | is called Bridging.

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