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History of Nursing

History of Nursing

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Published by saint_peter_03
history of nursing in the philippines
history of nursing in the philippines

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Published by: saint_peter_03 on Jun 18, 2009
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HISTORY OF NURSING IN THE PHILIPPINESA.1.1. Early Beliefs and Practices
(Diseases and their causes and treatment were shrouded withmysticism and superstitions.)1.Beliefs about causation of disease:a.)another person (an enemy or a witch) b.)evil spirits2.Belief that evil spirits could be driven away by persons with powers to expel demons.Belief in special gods of healing, with the priest -physician (called“word doctors”) as intermediary. If they used leaves or roots, they werecalled herb doctors (“herbolarios”)
Early Care of the Sick 
The early Filipinos subscribed to superstitious belief and practices inrelation to health and sickness. Herb men were called “herbicheros” meaning one who practiced witchcraft. Persons suffering from diseases without any identified causewere believed bewitched by “mangkukulam” or “mangagaway”. Difficult childbirthand some diseases (called “pamao”) were attributed to “nunos”. Midwives assisted inchildbirth. During labor, the “mabuting hilot” (good midwife) was called in. If the birth became difficult, witches were supposed to be the cause. To disperse their influence, gunpowder were exploded from a bamboo cane close to the head of thesufferer.
Health Care During the Spanish Regime
The religious orders exerted their efforts to care for the sick by building hospitals in different parts of the Philippines. The earliest hospitals were:
Hospital Real de Manila
(1577) – it was established mainlyto care for the Spanish kings soldiers, but also admittedSpanish civilians; founded by
Gov. Francisco de Sande
.
San Lazaro Hospital
(1578) – founded by
Brother JuanClemente
and was administered for many years by the
Hospitalliers of San Juan de Dios
; built exclusively for  patients with leprosy.
Hospital de Indios
(1586) established by the FranciscanOrder; service was in general supported by alms andcontributions from charitable persons.
Hospital de Aguas Santas
(1590) – established in Laguna;near a medicinal spring, founded by
Brother J. Baustista
of the Franciscan Order.
San
 
Juan de Dios Hospital
(1596) founded by theBrotherhood of Misericordia and administered by theHopsitaliers of San Juan de Dios; support was delivered fromalms and rents; rendered general health service to the public.
 
Nursing During the Philippine Revolution
Josephine Bracken,
wife of Jose Rizal- installed a field hospital inan estate house in Tejeros; provided nursing care to the woundednight and day
Rosa Sevilla de Alvero
- converted their house into quarters for theFilipino soldiers; during the Philippine-American War that brokeout in 1899
Dona Hilaria de Aguinaldo
- wife of Emilio Aguinaldo; organizedthat Filipino Red Cross under the inspiration of Mabini
Dona Maria Agoncillo de Aguinaldo
- second wife of EmilioAguinaldo; provided nursing care to Filipino soldiers during therevolution, President of the Filipino Red Cross branch in Batangas
Melchora Aquino (Tandang Sora)
–nursed the wounded Filipinosoldiers and gave them shelter and food
Capitan Salome
– a revolutionary leader in Nueva Ecija; providednursing care to the wounded when not in combat
Agueda Kahabagan
- revolutionary leader in Laguna, also provided nursing services to her troops
Trinidad Tecson
(
“Ina ng Biak-na-Bato”)
- stayed in the hospitalat Biak na Bato to care for wounded soldiers
Hospitals and Schools of NursingIloilo Mission Hospital School of Nursing
(Iloilo City, 1906)It was ran by the Baptist Foreign Mission Society of America.
Miss Rose Nicolet
, a graduate of New England Hospital for Women andChildren in Boston, Massachusetts was the first superintendent for nurses. Itmoved from its present location to Jaro Road, Iloilo City in 1929. Miss FloraErnst, an American nurse, took charge of the school in 1942. In April 1944graduate nurses took the first Nurses Board Examination at the Iloilo MissionHospital.
Saint Paul’s Hospital School of Nursing
(Manila, 1907)The hospital was established by the Archbishop of Manila,Jeremiah Harty under the supervision of the Sisters of St. Paul de Chartreslocated in Intramuros. It provided general hospital services. It opened itstraining school for nurses in 1908, with Mother Melanie as superintendent andMiss Chambers as Principal.
 
Philippine General Hospital School of Nursing
(Manila, 1907)PGH began in 1901 as a small dispensary for Civil officers andEmployees in the City of Manila and later grew as a Civil Hospital. In 1906,Mary Coleman Masters, an educator advocated for the idea of training Filipinogirls for the profession of nursing with the approval of Government officials,she first opened a dormitory for Girls enrolled at the Philippine Normal Halland the University of the Philippines.In 1907, with the support of Governor General Forbes and theDirector of Health and among others, she opened classes in nursing under theAuspices of the Bureau of Education. Admission was based on an entranceexamination. The applicant must have completed elementary education to theseventh grade. Julia Nichols and Charlotte Clayton taught the students nursingsubjects. American physician also served as lecturers.In 1910, the Act No. 1976 modified the organization of theschool placing it under the supervision of the Department of Health. The CivilHospital was abolished and the Philippine General Hospital was established.
St. Luke’s Hospital School of Nursing
(Quezon City, 1907)The hospital is an Episcopalian Institution. It began as a smalldispensary in 1903. In 1907, the school opened with three girls admitted.These three girls had their first year in combined classes with the PGH Schoolof Nursing and St. Paul’s Hospital School of Nursing. Miss Helen Hicks wasthe first principal. Mrs. Vitaliana Beltran was the first Filipino superintendentof nurses and Dr. Jose Fores was the first medical director of the hospital.
Mary Johnston Hospital and School of Nursing
(Manila, 1907)It started as a small dispensary on Calle Cervantes (nowAvenida). It was called the Bethany Dispensary and funded by the MethodistMission for the relief of suffering among women and children. In 1907, Sister Rebecca Parrish together with registered nurses Rose Dudley and GertudeDreisbach, organized the Mary Johnston School of Nursing. The nursestraining course began with three Filipino young girls fresh from elementary astheir first students.
Philippine Christian Mission Institute Schools of Nursing
The United Christian Missionary Society of Indianapolis, Indiana- aProtestant organization of the disciples of Christ operated three schools of nursing:
Sallie Long Read Memorial Hospital School of Nursing
(LaoagIlocos Norte, 1903)
Mary Chiles Hospital School of Nursing
(Manila, 1911)The hospital was established by Dr. WN Lemon in asmall house on Azcarraga, Sampaloc, Manila. In 1913, Miss Mary Chiles of Montanadonated a large sum of money with which the preset building at Gastambide was bought. The Tuason Annex was donated by Miss Esperanza Tuason, a FilipinoPhilantropist.

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