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Micro Bio

Micro Bio

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Published by saint_peter_03
notes on microbio
notes on microbio

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Published by: saint_peter_03 on Jun 18, 2009
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02/03/2013

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Early microbiology
Ancient cultures and civilizations had no idea that microbes existed but they didcomprehend some of their important effects. For example:
Ancient Egyptians were among the earliest peoples to use fermentation to brewtheir own beer.
The Romans liked to have good sanitation and prized clean drinking water.
Ancient Chinese immunized people against smallpox by having them inhaledried, powdered scabs from those suffering from a mild form of the disease.
Many traditional cultures have also recognized and used plants as remedies for certain diseases. For example, South Americans recognized the usefulness of extracts Cinchona tree (containing quinine) to treat malaria. The importance of traditional healers is being rediscovered by the West and has contributed to thefield of ethnobotany.
Many cultures recognized the communicability of certain diseases. Unfortunately,this recognition led to fear of and discrimination against sick people. These fearsstill persist today.
A Brief History of Microbiology
Development of microscopy:
Aristotle(384-322) and others believed that livingorganisms could develop from non-livingmaterials.
1590:Hans and Zacharias Janssen(Dutch lensgrinders) mounted two lenses in a tube toproduce the first compound microscope.
1660:Robert Hooke(1635-1703) published"Micrographia", containing drawings and detailedobservations of biological materials made withthe best compound microscope and illuminationsystem of the time.
1676:Anton van Leeuwenhoek(1632-1723) wasthe first person to observe microorganisms.
1883:Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbepioneereddevelopments in microscopy (such as immersionlenses and apochromatic lenses which reducechromatic aberration) which perist until thepresent day.
1931:Ernst Ruskaconstructed the first electronmicroscope.
 
1688:Francesco Redi(1626-1678) was an Italian physician whorefuted the idea of 
spontaneous generation
by showing thatrotting meat carefully kept from flies will not spontaneouslyproduce maggots.
1836: Theodor Schwann(1810-1882) helped develop the celltheory of living organisms, namely that that all living organismsare composed of one or more cells and that the cell is the basicfunctional unit of living organisms.
1861:Louis Pasteur's(1822-1895) famous experiments withswan-necked flasks finally proved that microorganisms do notarise by spontaneous generation. This eventually led to:
Development of sterilization 
Development of aseptic technique
 
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Proof that microbes cause disease:
1546:Hieronymus Fracastorius(Girolamo Fracastoro) wrote "OnContagion" ("De contagione et contagiosis morbis et curatione"), thethe first known discussion of the phenomenon of contagious infection.1835Agostino Bassi de Lodishowed that a disease affecting silkwormswas caused by a fungus - the first microorganism to be recognized as acontagious agent of animal disease.1847:Ignaz Semmelweiss(1818-1865), a Hungarian physician whodecided that doctors in Vienna hospitals were spreading childbed feverwhile delivering babies. He started forcing doctors under hissupervision to wash their hands before touching patients.1857:Louis Pasteurproposed the "germ theory" of disease.1867: Joseph Lister(1827-1912) introduced antiseptics in surgery. Byspraying carbolic acid on surgical instruments, wounds and dressings,he reduced surgical mortality due to bacterial infection considerably.1876:Robert Koch(1843-1910). German bacteriologist was the first tocultivate anthrax bacteria outside the body using blood serum at bodytemperature. Building on pasteur's "germ theory", he subsequentlypublished "
Koch's postulates
" (1884), the critical test for theinvolvement of a microorganism in a disease:1.The agent must be present in every case of the disease.2.The agent must be isolated and cultured in vitro.3.The disease must be reproduced when a pure culture of theagent is inoculated into a susceptible host.4.The agent must be recoverable from the experimentally-infectedhost. This eventually led to:
Development of pure culture techniques
Stains, agar, culture media, petri dishes

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