Able to handle many new data types, including graphics, photographs, audio, and video, object
oriented databases represent a significant advance over their other database cousins. Hierarchical andnetwork databases are all designed to handle structured data; that is, data that fits nicely into fields,rows, and columns. They are useful for handling small snippets of information such as names,addresset6fututyu5ru5,765rm s, zip codes, product numbers, and any kind of statistic or number youcan think of. On the other hand, an object
oriented database can be used to store data from a variety of media sources, such as photographs and text, and produce work, as output, in a multimedia format.
Data normalizaon is a process in which data aributes within a data model are organized to increase thecohesion of enty types. In other words, the goal of data normalizaon is to reduce and even eliminate dataredundancy, an important consideraon for applicaon developers because it is incredibly dicult to storesobjects in a relaonal database that maintains the same informaon in several places.
summarizes thethree most common forms of normalizaon (
)describing how to put enty types into a series of increasing levels of normalizaon. Higher levels of data normalizaon are beyond the scope of this arcle. With respect toterminology, a data schema is considered to be at the level of normalizaon of its least normalized enty type.For example, if all of your enty types are at second normal form (2NF) or higher then we say that your dataschema is at 2NF.
5. Why Data Normalization?
The advantage of having a highly normalized data schema is that information is stored in one place and one place only, reducing the possibility of inconsistent data. Furthermore, highly-normalized data schemas in general are closer conceptually to object-oriented schemas because the object-oriented goals of promoting high cohesion and loose coupling betweenclasses results in similar solutions (at least from a data point of view). This generally makes iteasier to map your objects to your data schema.
Benefits of Normalization
Normalization provides numerous benefits to a database. Some of the major benefits includethe following :
Greater overall database organization
Reduction of redundant data
Data consistency within the database
A much more flexible database design
A better handle on database securityOrganization is brought about by the normalization process, making everyone's job easier,from the user who accesses tables to the database administrator (DBA) who is responsible for the overall management of every object in the database. Data redundancy is reduced, whichsimplifies data structures and conserves disk space. Because duplicate data is minimized, the possibility of inconsistent data is greatly reduced. For example, in one table an individual'sname could read
, whereas the name of the same individual reads
in another table. Because the database has been normalized and broken into smaller tables, you are provided with more flexibility as far as modifying existing structures. It ismuch easier to modify a small table with little data than to modify one big table that holds allthe vital data in the database. Lastly, security is also provided in the sense that the DBA can