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DB notes

DB notes

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Published by t2p22
notes on data base
notes on data base

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Published by: t2p22 on Sep 04, 2013
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Types of DBMS
 
There are four main types of database management systems (DBMS) and these are based upon their management of database structures. In other words, the types of DBMS are entirely dependent uponhow the database is structured by that particular DBMS.
 
Contents1 Hierarchical DBMS 
 
2 Network DBMS 
 
3 Relational DBMS 
 
4 Object 
-
Oriented DBMS 
 
Hierarchical DBMS
 
A DBMS is said to be hierarchical if the relationships among data in the database are established insuch a way that one data item is present as the subordinate of another one. Here subordinate meansthat items have "parent
-
child" relationships among them. Direct relationships exist between any tworecords that are stored consecutively. The data structure "tree" is followed by the DBMS to structurethe database. No backward movement is possible/allowed in the hierarchical database.
 
The hierarchical data model was developed by IBM in 1968 and introduced in informationmanagement systems. This model is like a structure of a tree with the records forming the nodes andfields forming the branches of the tree. In the hierarchical model, records are linked in the form of anorganization chart. A tree structure may establish one
-
to
-
many relationship.
 
Network DBMS
 
A DBMS is said to be a Network DBMS if the relationships among data in the database are of typemany
-
to
-
many. The relationships among many
-
to
-
many appears in the form of a network. Thus thestructure of a network database is extremely complicated because of these many
-
to
-
many relationshipsin which one record can be used as a key of the entire database. A network database is structured in theform of a graph that is also a data structure. Though the structure of such a DBMS is highlycomplicated however it has two basic elements i.e. records and sets to designate many
-
to
-
manyrelationships. Mainly high
-
level languages such as Pascal, COBOL and FORTRAN etc. were used toimplement the records and set structures.
 
Relational DBMS
 
A DBMS is said to be a Relational DBMS or RDBMS if the database relationships are treated in theform of a table. there are three keys on relational DBMS 1)relation 2)domain 3)attributes. A network means it contains fundamental constructs sets or records.sets contains one to many relationship,recordscontains fields statical table that is composed of rows and columns is used to organize the database andits structure and is actually a two dimension array in the computer memory. A number of RDBMSs areavailable, some popular examples are Oracle, Sybase, Ingress, Informix, Microsoft SQL Server, andMicrosoft Access.
 
Object
-
Oriented DBMS
 
 
Able to handle many new data types, including graphics, photographs, audio, and video, object
-
oriented databases represent a significant advance over their other database cousins. Hierarchical andnetwork databases are all designed to handle structured data; that is, data that fits nicely into fields,rows, and columns. They are useful for handling small snippets of information such as names,addresset6fututyu5ru5,765rm s, zip codes, product numbers, and any kind of statistic or number youcan think of. On the other hand, an object
-
oriented database can be used to store data from a variety of media sources, such as photographs and text, and produce work, as output, in a multimedia format.
 
Data normalizaon is a process in which data aributes within a data model are organized to increase thecohesion of enty types. In other words, the goal of data normalizaon is to reduce and even eliminate dataredundancy, an important consideraon for applicaon developers because it is incredibly dicult to storesobjects in a relaonal database that maintains the same informaon in several places.
 summarizes thethree most common forms of normalizaon ( 
and
)describing how to put enty types into a series of increasing levels of normalizaon. Higher levels of data normalizaon are beyond the scope of this arcle. With respect toterminology, a data schema is considered to be at the level of normalizaon of its least normalized enty type.For example, if all of your enty types are at second normal form (2NF) or higher then we say that your dataschema is at 2NF.
 5. Why Data Normalization?
The advantage of having a highly normalized data schema is that information is stored in one place and one place only, reducing the possibility of inconsistent data. Furthermore, highly-normalized data schemas in general are closer conceptually to object-oriented schemas because the object-oriented goals of promoting high cohesion and loose coupling betweenclasses results in similar solutions (at least from a data point of view). This generally makes iteasier to map your objects to your data schema.
Benefits of Normalization
 Normalization provides numerous benefits to a database. Some of the major benefits includethe following :
 
Greater overall database organization
 
Reduction of redundant data
 
Data consistency within the database
 
A much more flexible database design
 
A better handle on database securityOrganization is brought about by the normalization process, making everyone's job easier,from the user who accesses tables to the database administrator (DBA) who is responsible for the overall management of every object in the database. Data redundancy is reduced, whichsimplifies data structures and conserves disk space. Because duplicate data is minimized, the possibility of inconsistent data is greatly reduced. For example, in one table an individual'sname could read
STEVE SMITH
, whereas the name of the same individual reads
STEPHEN R.SMITH
in another table. Because the database has been normalized and broken into smaller tables, you are provided with more flexibility as far as modifying existing structures. It ismuch easier to modify a small table with little data than to modify one big table that holds allthe vital data in the database. Lastly, security is also provided in the sense that the DBA can
 
grant access to limited tables to certain users. Security is easier to control when normalizationhas occurred.Data integrity is the assurance of consistent and accurate data within a database.
Referential Integrity
Referential integrity simply means that the values of one column in a table depend on thevalues of a column in another table. For instance, in order for a customer to have a record inthe
ORDERS_TBL
table, there must first be a record for that customer in the
CUSTOMER_TBL
 table. Integrity constraints can also control values by restricting a range of values for acolumn. The integrity constraint should be created at the table's creation. Referential integrityis typically controlled through the use of primary and foreign keys.In a table, a foreign key, normally a single field, directly references a primary key in another table to enforce referential integrity. In the preceding paragraph, the
CUST_ID
in
ORDERS_TBL
 is a foreign key that references
CUST_ID
in
CUSTOMER_TBL
.
Drawbacks of Normalization
Although most successful databases are normalized to some degree, there is one substantialdrawback of a normalized database: reduced database performance. The acceptance of reduced performance requires the knowledge that when a query or transaction request is sentto the database, there are factors involved, such as CPU usage, memory usage, andinput/output (I/O). To make a long story short, a normalized database requires much moreCPU, memory, and I/O to process transactions and database queries than does a denormalizeddatabase. A normalized database must locate the requested tables and then join the data fromthe tables to either get the requested information or to process the desired data. A more in-depth discussion concerning database performance occurs in Hour 18, "Managing DatabaseUsers."
Denormalizing a Database
Denormalization is the process of taking a normalized database and modifying table structuresto allow controlled redundancy for increased database performance. Attempting to improve performance is the only reason to ever denormalize a database. A denormalized database isnot the same as a database that has not been normalized. Denormalizing a database is the process of taking the level of normalization within the database down a notch or two.Remember, normalization can actually slow performance with its frequently occurring table join operations. (Table joins are discussed during Hour 13, "Joining Tables in Queries.")Denormalization may involve recombining separate tables or creating duplicate data withintables to reduce the number of tables that need to be joined to retrieve the requested data,which results in less I/O and CPU time.There are costs to denormalization, however. Data redundancy is increased in a denormalizeddatabase, which can improve performance but requires more extraneous efforts to keep track of related data. Application coding renders more complications, because the data has beenspread across various tables and may be more difficult to locate. In addition, referentialintegrity is more of a chore; related data has been divided among a number of tables. There is

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