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Pamphlet 01_What is Eeman

Pamphlet 01_What is Eeman

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Published by: mrcyber on Jun 19, 2009
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Prepared ShawanaA.Aziz for For online Islamic courses, audio lectures and informative articlesVisit us at
Quraan Sunnah Educational Programswww.qsep.com
Distributed by Enlightenment into Islam Study Circle - Women’s committee
PostalAddressTelephone: Fax: Email:
: Revival of Islamic Heritage Society - Women's CommitteeAttention: Enlightenment into Islam - P.O.Box: 5585, Saffat 13056, KUWAIT532-9259 (Direct Line), 257 0022 - 534-2573enlight@alturath.org
When it comes to a concept from the Qur’aan andthe Sunnah, there has always been twoapproaches to determine its correct meaning. Analyzing this essential step distinguishes thecorrectIslamfromthelaterinventedviews.a) The first approach is to discover the meaningfrom the Qur'aan and the teachings of Allah’sMessenger ,ashepassedontohisCompanions.b) The second approach is to discover thelinguistic meaning based on assumption withoutfirst referring to the explanation given by Allahand His Messenger . This latter approach is of thehereticalgroups.Shaikh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah(rahimahullah) writes in Kitab al-Eeman, ‘Onemust understand that if any term is found in theQur'aan and the Hadeeth, and its explanation isknown and its meaning is made clear by theProphet , then there is no need to use anylinguistic meanings as evidenceThe wordsSalat, Zakaat, Siyam (fasting), Hajj are found inthe words of Allah and His Messenger . ThesameistrueforthewordKhamr(intoxicants)andothers. From him (Allah's Messenger ), oneknowstheirmeanings.Ifanyonewantstoexplainsuch terms in a way, other than how the Prophetexplained it, such an explanation will not beacceptedThe terms Eeman, Islam, Nifaq(hypocrisy) and Kufr are more important thanthese terms. The Prophet explained themeanings of these terms in such a way that it isnotnecessary tolookfor their linguisticorigins orhowthey were used by the pre-Islamic Arabs andsoforth.Therefore,itisamustthatwhiletryingtodetermine the meanings of such terms, one looksat how Allah and His Messenger explainedthem. Their explanation is clear and sufficient…the heretics have been misled on this matter.They turn away from this method. Instead, theybegin to explain the religion of Islam based onsome principles that they believe to be sound,either concerning linguistic meaning or rationalthought. They do not ponder or consider theexplanation of Allah and His Messenger .Everypremise that goes against the explanation givenby Allah and His Messenger is certainlymisguidance.’Eeman is explicitly described in thefamoushadeethofJibreel ,whenhe askedtheMessenger of Allah : ‘What is Eeman?’ Hereplied, ‘Eeman is to believe in Allah, His Angels,His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day and tobelieve in the Predestination; the good and thebad.’[Agreedupon]Inanothernarration,IbnAbbas said,‘Whenthedelegation of Abd al-Qais came to the MessengerofAllah ,hecommandedthemtobelieveinAllahand asked, ‘Do you know what is Eeman?’ Theyreplied, ‘Allah and His Messenger knows best.He then answered, ‘It includes bearing witnessthat there is no god but Allah, and that
 What is Eeman?
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Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, toestablishPrayer,pay Zakaat,fastinthemonth of Ramadaan, and give one-fifth of the war-booty.’[AbuDawood&Tirmidhee]Thus, in light of the above Ahaadeeth, weunderstand thatEeman is a combination of belief and actions. The earlier scholars summed upthese two components in their saying: ‘Eeman isStatement and Action.’ [See al-Laalakai v.1,p.176] Statement here includes both; statementsof the heart and statement of the tongue and Action include both, actions of the heart andactions of the body. These two components arebroken down into three essential parts for betterunderstanding:1.BeliefoftheHeart.2.ConfessionbytheTongue.3.ActionsoftheBody.Heart is the root of Eeman. If the belief of the heart is not firm andcorrectthennootherdeedoractioncanbeperfect.TheMessengerofAllah said:‘Thereisalumpof fleshinthebody.Whenitissound,thewholebodyis sound; but when it goes wrong, the whole bodygoeswrong.Itistheheart!!’[Agreedupon]Belief in the heart constitutes two parts; TasdeeqandInqiyaadandit incorporates Recognition, Knowledge and Affirmation of (the Existence and Lordship of) Allah and His Commands. This Tasdeeq isingrained in the Fitra, which is the naturalinstinct of mankind and it recognizes the TrueLord – Allah. The Prophet said, ‘Every child isborn upon Fitra but it is his parents who makehim a Jew, or a Christian or a Magian (fireworshiper).’ [Agreed upon] Imam Ibn Katheerexplained, ‘Allah stated that (when Allah created Adam)HebroughtthedescendantsofAdamoutof their father’s loins, and they testified againstthemselves that Allah is their Lord and King andthat there is no deity worthy of worship exceptHim. Allah created them on this Fitra, just as Hesaid (in Soorah Rum (30): 30), ‘So set you (OMuhammad) your facetruly towards the religion,Hanifan. Allah's Fitrah with which He hascreated mankind. No change let there be inKhalqillah.'whichmeans Acceptance and Submission to Allah andHis Commands. Unlike Tasdeeq, Inqiyad issomething that needs to be established and thus,themainmessageofalltheMessengersofAllahand their dispute with the disbelievers wasspecifically the second aspect; i.e. ‘Submission tothe Commands of Allah.’ Allah says, ‘And verily,We have sent among every Ummah (community,nation) a Messenger (proclaiming), ‘Worship Allah (Alone) and avoid Taghoot (false gods).[Soorahan-Nahl(16):36]The secondnecessary component of Eeman is the confessingof one’s Eeman by the Tongue. The simplepronouncement of the Shahada (testimony), ‘Lailaha illAllah’ is not the intent - Certainly, thehypocrites didso(i.e. they merely pronounced theShahadah) but they were not true believers. Thepronouncementofthewordsmustaccompany:-(a)TheCorrectBeliefintheLordshipofAllahanditsrelatedaspects.(b)RejectionofallkindofShirk.(c)AdherencetothelawsofIslam.If these principles are not the intent of theproclamation, then such a confession is notbeneficial.Hence,beforeonemakesthetestimonyof Faith,hemustclearly understandthemeaningandpurportofconfession.Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) writes inhisbookKitaabal-Eeman,‘TheArabsdonothaveanysuchthingintheir languageasaffirmationordenial unless it be in meaning and word (i.e.unless one understands and verbally confesses ordenies). One will not find in Arabic speechstatements such as, ‘Mr. X believed in Mr. Y’ or‘denied him’ifMr.Xonly knewitinhisheartthathe(Mr.Y)wastrue.(Suchastatementwouldonlybe made if the person) spoke it. Whoever does notaffirm his belief in someone with his speech, if hehas the ability to do so,is nota believer accordingtoArabs.Therefore,ourpiouspredecessorsofthisnation(theSahabah )andthosewhofollowthemin goodness agree on this point. One who believesin his heartbutdoesno verbally statehis belief isnotconsideredabeliever;neitherinthislifenorinthe Hereafter. Allah has not declared such aperson to be a believer in the Message (theQur’aan)- simply due totheKnowledge ofEemaninhisHeart.Heisnotconsideredabelieverunlesshe confirms it by his speech. Therefore, theoutward speech is an essential aspect of Eeman,andaccordingtotheearlierandlaterscholars,onewill not be saved unless he verbally testifies. TheMuslims agree that he, who does not make theconfessionoffaithalthoughhehastheabilitytodoso, is a disbeliever. He is a disbeliever bothinwardly and outwardly according to the pious
(1) Belief of the Heart:i) Tasdeeq is the Statement of the Heartii) Inqiyaad is the Action of the Heart(2) Confession by the Tongue:
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