03logically reach a consumer who is traveling throughthe sales unnel.The interplay between three actors appears toinfuence when a publisher is likely to reach aconverter: site unction, audience, and advertisermix. Search engines are an interesting example o this phenomena. The inormation gathering andnavigational unctions o search draw an audienceo consumers with a high probability o makinga purchase
. Consequently, search has attracteda number o direct response and lead generatingadvertisers pushing messages designed to getconsumers to “act now.”Social media, on the other hand, oten reachesconsumers much earlier. Users o social media visitthose sites in order to connect and share experienceswith riends and amily over the web. Most o theunctionality provided by these sites does not leaddirectly to a commercial transaction. Rather,advertisers nd these publishers valuable or theirreach to a broader audience and ability to buildawareness. As a result, social media sites tend tolive high in their advertisers’ purchase unnels.
implct Fr Cmp Mrmt
When a site reaches a user prior to conversion, it has serious implications or how wemeasure and plan online campaigns. This is especially true when it comes to measuringcampaign ROI using the last-ad standard. Over hal o the views or clicks that arecredited by the last-ad methodology occur within ve days or less rom the time o conversion, even though only a raction o the total ad consumption by convertersoccurs during this period. But more importantly, as Figure 2 shows, only a ew sitecategories dominate the lower reaches o the purchase unnel. Assigning credit to thelast click or view disproportionally avors those ew publishers at the expense o thepublishing majority, whose contributions are spread out over more time.Other common industry practices can urther obscure the contributions a publishermade to a sale. Advertisers whose action tags use shorter view or click windows arealso devaluing many publishers, since publishers that appear in the nal week prior toconversion are oten dierent rom those appearing three or our weeks prior. Thesesites are bought or dierent reasons than the publishers urther down the unnel, suchas to generate awareness or reach a particular audience. Publishers higher in the unnelare valuable sources o new prospects that are used to eed trac to lower-unnel
M e d i a n D a y s B e f o r e C o n v e r s i o n s
City GuideAutoAfﬁliateGamesKidsAd NetworkPortalNewsLifestyleSocialSportsTechnologyEntertainmentFood/WineMusicReal EstateSearch EnginesTelecomFinanceTravelJobsISPShopping VideoWeatherEmailDirectory
Median Ad Delivery Time by Site Category
Brooks, Nico. Paying or Navigational Search, 2007.
Figure 2:Most publishers livein the middle andupper funnel.